Project description:Social concern and awareness of the potential risk posed by environmental residues of antibiotics such as gentamicin in the development of antibiotic resistance genes have increased. The present study used laboratory-scale experiments to develop methods for gentamicin removal from the environment. A fungus, strain FZC3, which could remove gentamicin in submerged fermentation, was isolated from solid waste and sewage water from a gentamicin production factory. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus terreus by sequencing the PCR-amplified ITS fragments of its rRNA-coding genes and by its morphology. The gentamicin removal efficiency exceeded 95% by day 7 under optimized culture conditions. The results showed that both biosorption and biodegradation were involved. We speculated that Aspergillus terreus FZC3 absorbed gentamicin and subsequently degraded it. We also found that Aspergillus terreus FZC3 survived and maintained a high bioremediation efficiency over a wide pH range, indicating its potential for future use in the large-scale bioremediation of gentamicin.
Project description:Itaconic acid is an important organic acid used in the chemical industry. Aspergillus terreus strain IFO6365 is one of the highest-yielding itaconic acid-producing wild-type strains. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of IFO6365, enhancing the understanding of the role and biosynthesis of itaconic acid in this fungus.
Project description:Itaconic acid is an important organic acid used in the chemical industry. Aspergillus terreus strain TN-484 is a high-itaconic-acid-productivity mutant derived from strain IFO6365. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain TN-484, advancing the understanding of the biosynthesis of itaconic acid in filamentous fungi.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. RESULTS: In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. CONCLUSIONS: Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Artemisinin (1) and its derivatives are now being widely used as antimalarial drugs, and they also exhibited good antitumor activities. So there has been much interest in the structural modification of artemisinin and its derivatives because of their effective bioactivities. The microbial transformation is a promising route to obtain artemisinin derivatives. The present study focuses on the microbial transformation of artemisinin by Aspergillus terreus. RESULTS:During 6 days at 28 °C and 180 rpm, Aspergillus terreus transformed artemisinin to two products. They were identified as 1-deoxyartemisinin (2) and 4?-hydroxy-1-deoxyartemisinin (3) on the basis of their spectroscopic data. CONCLUSIONS:The microbial transformation of artemisinin by Aspergillus terreus was investigated, and two products (1-deoxyartemisinin and 4?-hydroxy-1-deoxyartemisinin) were obtained. This study is the first to report on the microbial transformation of artemisinin by Aspergillus terreus.
Project description:We report the complete genome of Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a tropical soil isolate. The genome sequence is 29 Mb, with a G+C content of 51.12%. The genome sequence of A. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16).
Project description:The echinocandin caspofungin is a potent inhibitor of the activity of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus nidulans. In murine models of disseminated infection, caspofungin prolonged survival and reduced the kidney fungal burden. Caspofungin was at least as effective as amphotericin B against these filamentous fungi in vivo.
Project description:A study was conducted to investigate the potential of Aspergillus terreus obtained from Avicennia marina mangrove roots in inhibiting Pythium aphanidermatum and damping-off disease of cucumber. Aspergillus terreus exhibited in vitro inhibition of Pythium aphanidermatum growth. Electron microscope examination revealed that the antagonistic fungal isolate resulted in shrinking and groves in Pythium hypha. When Aspergillus terreus culture filtrate was added to Pythium aphanidermatum, it resulted in a significant increase (by 73%) in electrolyte leakage from Pythium hypha compared to the control, as well as significant reduction (by 71%) in oospore production. The Aspergillus terreus culture was also found to produce a cellulase enzyme, which is suggested to be involved in the antagonism against Pythium aphanidermatum. Adding Aspergillus terreus to soil infested with Pythium aphanidermatum significantly reduced percent mortality in cucumber seedlings by 70%. Aspergillus terreus, when applied alone on cucumber seedlings, did not show any suppressive effects on cucumber growth (length and fresh and dry weight). This appears to be the first report of isolation from mangrove of Aspergillus terreus with antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum-induced damping-off of cucumber. The study indicates that fungal isolates obtained from marine environments may serve as potential biocontrol agents against some plant pathogens.
Project description:Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP-related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP affecting melanin synthesis was also identified in this species.
Project description:Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic) species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied. Methods: A global set (n = 498) of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin), tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene. Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8%), followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4%), A. hortai (2.6%), A. alabamensis (1.6%), A. neoafricanus (0.2%), and A. floccosus (0.2%). One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4% of all tested isolates, 6.2% of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s.) were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0% in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7% in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V. Conclusions:Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4% of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus isolates was higher than 10%, resistance against voriconazole was rare and absent for itraconazole.