Project description:Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme expressed in mammalian testes, exerts a direct effect on spermatogenesis; however, its protein characteristics in bovine testes remain unknown. Here, we analysed bovine testicular structure, MTHFR bioinformatics profile, mRNA, and protein expression characteristics in yellow-cattle (y-c) and yak testis using histological procedures, bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Testes from 13 bovines, ?2 years juvenile (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 3) and ?3 years adult (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 4) were collected and analysed. Anatomical characteristics of testis in y-c and yak were similar except the weight or size for which that of y-c was significantly higher or greater than yak. In y-c, an open reading frame (ORF) for 2600 nucleotides sequence, encoding 655 amino acids showed high homology with zebu cattle (99.51%) and wild yak (98.68%). Secondary and 3D protein structures were similar to that of humans with differences in the number of nucleotides, amino acids, and some physico-chemical characteristics. MTHFR mRNA expression in y-c and yak were significantly higher in adult testes compared with juvenile ones. However, its protein expression was higher, but not statistically significant, in adult y-c and yak compared to the juvenile ones. The highlights and inferences of these and other findings are discussed.
Project description:Since the exposure of rats to cadmium causes zinc to accumulate in metallothionein in liver and kidney but not in a similar protein in the testes, the properties of the low-Mr cadmium-binding proteins were investigated in rat testes. Weanling rats that had been given dietary cadmium for 6 weeks were injected with 109CdCl2 and subsequently killed, and the 109Cd-labelled low-Mr proteins from testes were purified. The pooled low-Mr cadmium-containing fractions from the gel-filtration (Sephadex G-75) columns were eluted through DEAE-Sephacel columns, yielding two peaks. Each of the individual peaks from this Sephacel column was further purified by rechromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and on Bio-Gel P-10 columns. Amino acid analysis of the two purified proteins revealed a low cysteine (about 3%) content, with aspartate, glutamate and glycine as the predominant amino acids. Thus these low-Mr cadmium-binding proteins induced by cadmium in rat testes do not appear to be metallothionein.
Project description:In mammalian embryonic gonads, SOX9 is required for the determination of Sertoli cells that orchestrate testis morphogenesis. To identify genetic networks directly regulated by SOX9, we combined analysis of SOX9-bound chromatin regions from murine and bovine foetal testes with sequencing of RNA samples from mouse testes lacking Sox9. We found that SOX9 controls a conserved genetic programme that involves most of the sex-determining genes. In foetal testes, SOX9 modulates both transcription and directly or indirectly sex-specific differential splicing of its target genes through binding to genomic regions with sequence motifs that are conserved among mammals and that we called 'Sertoli Cell Signature' (SCS). The SCS is characterized by a precise organization of binding motifs for the Sertoli cell reprogramming factors SOX9, GATA4 and DMRT1. As SOX9 biological role in mammalian gonads is to determine Sertoli cells, we correlated this genomic signature with the presence of SOX9 on chromatin in foetal testes, therefore equating this signature to a genomic bar code of the fate of foetal Sertoli cells. Starting from the hypothesis that nuclear factors that bind to genomic regions with SCS could functionally interact with SOX9, we identified TRIM28 as a new SOX9 partner in foetal testes.
Project description:Fractionation of rat testicular cytosolic proteins by gel filtration indicates three major metal-binding proteins, or groups of proteins, termed testicular metal-binding protein (TMBP) 1, 2 and 3 by order of elution. The major heat-stable, metal-binding proteins in testes is TMBP-2, which has an Mr of approx. 25000. In most tissues, metallothionein (MT) is the major heat-stable, metal-binding protein, but it has an Mr of 6000. This testicular protein (TMBP-2) is much larger than MT, and since polymeric forms of MT have been previously reported, further characterization of TMBP-2 was performed. TMBP-2 was separated into two forms by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 anion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid analysis of both forms of TMBP-2 revealed that they differed markedly from MT, having particularly low cysteine contents. However, amino acid analysis showed that TBMP-2 was strikingly similar to TMBP-3, with an approximate stoichiometric relationship of 4:1. Therefore, experiments were conducted to determine if TMBP-3 could be a breakdown product of TMBP-2. Heat treatment of testicular cytosol in room air before gel filtration resulted in a marked increase in TMBP-3 and loss of TMBP-2. Storing intact testes at -20 degrees C for 2 weeks before processing for gel filtration also resulted in an increase in TMBP-3 and a loss of TMBP-2. Addition of a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) or proteinase inhibitor (N-ethylmaleimide) in processing of samples before gel filtration inhibited the appearance of TMBP-3. Results suggest that the low-Mr Cd-binding protein (TMBP-3) of rat testes results from either proteolytic or oxidative breakdown of a higher-Mr species, or from a combination of such factors.
Project description:<i>Drosophila</i> Blanks is a testes-specific RNA-binding protein required for post-meiotic spermiogenesis. However, Blanks's role in regulating RNA populations in the testes remains unknown. We performed small RNA and mRNA high-throughput sequencing in <i>blanks</i> mutant testes and controls. We identified two miRNAs, one siRNA, and hundreds of mRNAs that are significantly upregulated or downregulated in <i>blanks</i> mutant testes. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed mRNAs are involved in catabolic and metabolic processes, anion and cation transport, mating, and reproductive behavior. Our results reveal that Blanks plays important roles in defining testicular small RNA and mRNA profiles.
Project description:Small RNAs mediate gene silencing by binding Argonaute/Piwi proteins to regulate target RNAs. Here we describe small RNA profiling of the adult testes of Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset. The most abundant class of small RNAs in the adult testis was piRNAs, while 353 novel miRNAs but few endo-siRNAs were also identified. MARWI, a marmoset homolog of mouse MIWI and a very abundant PIWI in adult testes, associates with piRNAs that show characteristics of mouse pachytene piRNAs. As in other mammals, most marmoset piRNAs are derived from conserved clustered regions in the genome, which are annotated as intergenic regions. However, some of these piRNA cluster regions contain antisense-orientated pseudogenes, suggesting regulation of parental functional protein-coding genes. More piRNAs map to transposable element (TE) subfamilies when they have copies in piRNA clusters. In addition, the strand-bias observed for piRNAs mapped to each TE subfamily correlates with the polarity of copies inserted in clusters. These findings suggest that pachytene piRNA clusters determine the abundance and strand-bias of TE-derived piRNAs, and also regulate protein-coding genes via pseudogene-derived piRNAs. small RNA levels in the adult marmoset testis, and MARWI-IP small RNA levels and RNA levels from the adult marmoset testis with two replicates.
Project description:The tandem RNA recognition motif protein, NONO, was previously identified as a candidate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor in a biochemical screen for proteins with end-joining stimulatory activity. Subsequent work showed that NONO and its binding partner, SFPQ, have many of the properties expected for bona fide repair factors in cell-based assays. Their contribution to the DNA damage response in intact tissue in vivo has not, however, been demonstrated. Here we compare DNA damage sensitivity in the testes of wild-type mice versus mice bearing a null allele of the NONO homologue (Nono gt). In wild-type mice, NONO protein was present in Sertoli, peritubular myoid, and interstitial cells, with an increase in expression following induction of DNA damage. As expected for the product of an X-linked gene, NONO was not detected in germ cells. The Nono gt/0 mice had at most a mild testis developmental phenotype in the absence of genotoxic stress. However, following irradiation at sublethal, 2-4 Gy doses, Nono gt/0 mice displayed a number of indicators of radiosensitivity as compared to their wild-type counterparts. These included higher levels of persistent DSB repair foci, increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the seminiferous tubules, and partial degeneration of the blood-testis barrier. There was also an almost complete loss of germ cells at later times following irradiation, evidently arising as an indirect effect reflecting loss of stromal support. Results demonstrate a role for NONO protein in protection against direct and indirect biological effects of ionizing radiation in the whole animal.
Project description:We report expression profiles for mouse testes carrying a Phf13 knockout in comparison to wildtype testes. Upregulation of X- and Y-linked genes is evident after loss of PHF13. Overall design: RNA-Seq of 3 samples each from wildtype and Phf13 knockout mice.
Project description:The Drosophila spermatogenesis cell differentiation pathway involves the activation of a large set of genes in primary spermatocytes. Most of these genes are activated by testis-specific TATA-binding protein associated factors (tTAFs). In the current model for the activation mechanism, Polycomb plays a key role silencing these genes in the germline precursors, and tTAF-dependent activation in primary spermatocytes involves the displacement of Polycomb from gene promoters. We investigated the genome-wide binding of Polycomb in wild type and tTAF mutant testes. According to the model we expected to see a clear enhancement in Polycomb binding at tTAF-dependent spermatogenesis genes in tTAF mutant testes. However, we find little evidence for such an enhancement in tTAF mutant testes compared to wild type. To avoid problems arising from cellular heterogeneity in whole testis analysis, we further tested the model by analysing Polycomb binding in purified germline precursors, representing cells before tTAF-dependent gene activation. Although we find Polycomb associated with its canonical targets, we find little or no evidence of Polycomb at spermatogenesis genes. The lack of Polycomb at tTAF-dependent spermatogenesis genes in precursor cells argues against a model where Polycomb displacement is the mechanism of spermatogenesis gene activation. This genome-wide ChIP-array study investigates the binding of Polycomb in three biological samples: wild type (WT) whole testes, tTAF (can) mutant whole testes, and FACS-sorted germline precursor cells. We performed two biological replicates for each sample, except wild type whole testes where we performed three. For all ChIP-array experiments, input chromatin was used as the reference control to assay ChIP enrichment. We used Cy3/Cy5-labelled ChIP and input DNA for hybridisation onto Nimblegen arrays, and we performed a Cy3/Cy5 dye swap for one biological replicate of each sample (see supplementary file: GSE39935_README.txt).