Project description:We produced RNA-seq reads from messenger RNA isolated from aerial seedling tissue for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in the HULK gene family. The read data were generated with biological replication (two replicates). The resulting RNA-seq data provide a resource to assess the function of HULK genes in the control of downstream gene expression in A. thaliana. Examination of RNA transcript levels in HULK T-DNA mutants (and mutant combinations therein) in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:We report the results of a genome-wide analysis of transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana after treatment with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato. Our time course RNA-Seq experiment uses over 500 million read pairs to provide a detailed characterization of the response to infection in both susceptible and resistant hosts. The set of observed differentially expressed genes is consistent with previous studies, confirming and extending existing findings about genes likely to play an important role in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae. The high coverage of the Arabidopsis transcriptome resulted in the discovery of a surprisingly large number of alternative splicing (AS) events--more than 44% of multi-exon genes showed evidence for novel AS in at least one of the probed conditions. This demonstrates that the Arabidopsis transcriptome annotation is still highly incomplete, and that AS events are more abundant than expected. To further refine our predictions, we identified genes with statistically significant changes in the ratios of alternative isoforms between treatments. This set includes several genes previously known to be alternatively spliced or expressed during the defense response, and it may serve as a pool of candidate genes for regulated alternative splicing with possible biological relevance for the defense response against invasive pathogens.
Project description:Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae). The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples) were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i) the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) and (ii) our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x) would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations.
Project description:The establishment of an expression quantification system that can be easily applied for the comparison of microRNAs (miRNAs) from biological samples is an important step toward understanding functional mechanisms in organisms. However, there is lack of attention on the selection of reference genes for miRNA expression profiling in insect herbivores. Here, we explored the candidate reference genes in a notorious pest of cruciferous crops, Plutella xylostella, for normalization of miRNA expression in developmental stages and tissues and in response to a change of food source from artificial diet to host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We first compared the expression levels and stability of eight small RNAs using qRT-PCR, and found that miR11 was the most suitable reference gene for expression quantification of the miRNAs. We then confirmed this finding using digital droplet PCR and further validated with a well-studied cross-kingdom miRNA derived from A. thaliana (ath-miR159a). However, none of the reference genes was applicable for all experimental conditions, and multiple reference genes were sometimes required within the same experiment. Our work provides a method for the selection of reference genes for quantification of plant-derived miRNAs, which paves the way for unveiling their roles in the insect-plant coevolution.
Project description:Because of the recent increase in the demand for fresh produce, contamination of raw food products has become an issue. Foodborne diseases are frequently caused by the infection of leguminous plants by human bacterial pathogens. Moreover, contamination by Vibrio cholerae, closely related with Vibrio vulnificus, has been reported in plants and vegetables. Here, we investigated the possibility of Vibrio vulnificus 96-11-17M, an opportunistic human pathogen, to infect and colonize Arabidopsis thaliana plants, resulting in typical disease symptoms at 5 and 7 days post-inoculation in vitro and in planta under artificial and favorable conditions, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 5,360, 4,204, 4,916 and 3,741 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-inoculation, respectively, compared with the 0 h time point. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these DEGs act in pathways responsive to chemical and hormone stimuli and plant defense. The expression of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent pathways was altered following V. vulnificus inoculation. Genetic analyses of Arabidopsis mutant lines verified that common pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors perceive the V. vulnificus infection, thus activating JA and ET signaling pathways. Our data indicate that the human bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus 96-11-17M modulates defense-related genes and host defense machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana under favorable conditions.
Project description:Aerial plant surfaces are covered by epicuticular waxes that among other purposes serve to control water loss. Maize glossy mutants originally identified by their "glossy" phenotypes exhibit alterations in the accumulation of epicuticular waxes. By combining data from a BSR-Seq experiment and the newly developed Seq-Walking technology, GRMZM2G118243 was identified as a strong candidate for being the glossy13 gene. The finding that multiple EMS-induced alleles contain premature stop codons in GRMZM2G118243, and the one knockout allele of gl13, validates the hypothesis that gene GRMZM2G118243 is gl13. Consistent with this, GRMZM2G118243 is an ortholog of AtABCG32 (Arabidopsis thaliana), HvABCG31 (barley) and OsABCG31 (rice), which encode ABCG subfamily transporters involved in the trans-membrane transport of various secondary metabolites. We therefore hypothesize that gl13 is involved in the transport of epicuticular waxes onto the surfaces of seedling leaves.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The last 10 years have seen the rise of countless functional genomics studies based on Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). In the vast majority of cases, whatever the species, whatever the experiment, the two first steps of data analysis consist of a quality control of the raw reads followed by a mapping of those reads to a reference genome/transcriptome. Subsequent steps then depend on the type of study that is being made. While some tools have been proposed for investigating data quality after the mapping step, there is no commonly adopted framework that would be easy to use and broadly applicable to any NGS data type. RESULTS:We present ALFA, a simple but universal tool that can be used after the mapping step on any kind of NGS experiment data for any organism with available genomic annotations. In a single command line, ALFA can compute and display distribution of reads by categories (exon, intron, UTR, etc.) and biotypes (protein coding, miRNA, etc.) for a given aligned dataset with nucleotide precision. We present applications of ALFA to Ribo-Seq and RNA-Seq on Homo sapiens, CLIP-Seq on Mus musculus, RNA-Seq on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bisulfite sequencing on Arabidopsis thaliana and ChIP-Seq on Caenorhabditis elegans. CONCLUSIONS:We show that ALFA provides a powerful and broadly applicable approach for post mapping quality control and to produce a global overview using common or dedicated annotations. It is made available to the community as an easy to install command line tool and from the Galaxy Tool Shed.
Project description:The current version of the Gene Transcription Regulation Database (GTRD; http://gtrd.biouml.org) contains information about: (i) transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and transcription coactivators identified by ChIP-seq experiments for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Danio rerio, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) regions of open chromatin and TFBSs (DNase footprints) identified by DNase-seq; (iii) unmappable regions where TFBSs cannot be identified due to repeats; (iv) potential TFBSs for both human and mouse using position weight matrices from the HOCOMOCO database. Raw ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data were obtained from ENCODE and SRA, and uniformly processed. ChIP-seq peaks were called using four different methods: MACS, SISSRs, GEM and PICS. Moreover, peaks for the same factor and peak calling method, albeit using different experiment conditions (cell line, treatment, etc.), were merged into clusters. To reduce noise, such clusters for different peak calling methods were merged into meta-clusters; these were considered to be non-redundant TFBS sets. Moreover, extended quality control was applied to all ChIP-seq data. Web interface to access GTRD was developed using the BioUML platform. It provides browsing and displaying information, advanced search possibilities and an integrated genome browser.
Project description:RNA-seq data of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions exposed to mild drought or control treatments. The sampled tissue is the third leaf at the last day of proliferation (cell division phase).
Project description:In Arabidopsis thaliana and related plants, glucosinolates are a major component in the blend of secondary metabolites and contribute to resistance against herbivorous insects. Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAM) encoded at the MAM gene cluster control an early step in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and, therefore, are central to the diversification of glucosinolate metabolism. We sequenced bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the MAM cluster from several Arabidopsis relatives, conducted enzyme assays with heterologously expressed MAM genes, and analyzed MAM nucleotide variation patterns. Our results show that gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and positive selection provide the mechanism for biochemical adaptation in plant defense. These processes occur repeatedly in the history of the MAM gene family, indicating their fundamental importance for the evolution of plant metabolic diversity both within and among species.