Project description:To understand dynamic changes in rhizosphere microbial community in consecutive monoculture, Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed to evaluate the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA in the rhizosphere of newly planted and three-year ratooning sugarcane and to analyze the rhizosphere bacterial communities. A total of 126,581 and 119,914 valid sequences were obtained from newly planted and ratooning sugarcane and annotated with 4445 and 4620 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. Increased bacterial community abundance was found in the rhizosphere of ratooning sugarcane when compared with the newly planted sugarcane. The dominant bacterial taxa phyla were similar in both sugarcane groups. Proteobacteria accounted for more than 40% of the total bacterial community, followed by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. The abundance of Actinobacteria was higher in the newly planted sugarcane, whereas the abundance of Acidobacteria was higher in the ratooning sugarcane. Our study showed that Sphingomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Bryobacter, and Gemmatimonas were dominant genera. Moreover, the richness and diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial communities slightly increased and the abundance of beneficial microbes, such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Streptacidiphilus, in ratooning sugarcane were more enriched. With the consecutive monoculture of sugarcane, the relative abundance of functional groups related to energy metabolism, glycan biosynthesis, metabolism, and transcription were overrepresented in ratooning sugarcane. These findings could provide the way for promoting the ratooning ability of sugarcane by improving the soil bacterial community.
Project description:This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors.
Project description:Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes.
Project description:Several factors influenced the sugarcane production, and among them, higher use of nitrogen and depletion of soil nutrient constitutes a significant concern in China. Sugarcane-legume intercropping may help to regulate the microbial structure and functions. In the present study, sugarcane rhizosphere soils of three cropping systems: Sugarcane only (S-only), sugarcane with peanut (S + P), and sugarcane + soybean (S + S) were sampled in tillering, elongation, and maturation stages from two different experimental fields. High-throughput sequencing technologies applied to assess the effects of different cropping systems on the structure of nitrogenase (nifH) gene communities. A total of 3818 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were acquired from all soil samples. Intercropping systems noticeably increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the tillering stage. The increased microbial diversity in the rhizosphere was mainly due to soil organic carbon and total soil N. In contrast, intercropping has no significant negative impact on microbial abundance, but sugarcane growth stages influence it significantly, and two bacteria (Bradyrhizobium and Pseudacidovorax) showed significant shift during plant growth. The results provide insight into the microbial structure of Proteobacteria in the sugarcane legume-intercropping field, and how microbial community behaves in different growth stages. It can boost the microbial activity of the soil, and that could be a new strategy to stimulate soil fertility without causing any negative impact on crop production.
Project description:For the last 150 years many studies have shown the importance of earthworms for plant growth, but the exact mechanisms involved in the process are still poorly understood. Many important functions required for plant growth can be performed by soil microbes in the rhizosphere. To investigate earthworm influence on the rhizosphere microbial community, we performed a macrocosm experiment with and without Pontoscolex corethrurus (EW+ and EW-, respectively) and followed various soil and rhizosphere processes for 217 days with sugarcane. In EW+ treatments, N2O concentrations belowground (15?cm depth) and relative abundances of nitrous oxide genes (nosZ) were higher in bulk soil and rhizosphere, suggesting that soil microbes were able to consume earthworm-induced N2O. Shotgun sequencing (total DNA) revealed that around 70 microbial functions in bulk soil and rhizosphere differed between EW+ and EW- treatments. Overall, genes indicative of biosynthetic pathways and cell proliferation processes were enriched in EW+ treatments, suggesting a positive influence of worms. In EW+ rhizosphere, functions associated with plant-microbe symbiosis were enriched relative to EW- rhizosphere. Ecological networks inferred from the datasets revealed decreased niche diversification and increased keystone functions as an earthworm-derived effect. Plant biomass was improved in EW+ and worm population proliferated.
Project description:Intercropping of soybean and sugarcane is an important strategy to promote sustainable development of the sugarcane industry. In fact, our understanding of the interaction between the rhizosphere and bacterial communities in the intercropping system is still evolving; particularly, the influence of different sugarcane varieties on rhizosphere bacterial communities in the intercropping process with soybean, still needs further research. Here, we evaluated the response of sugarcane varieties ZZ1 and ZZ9 to the root bacterial community during intercropping with soybean. We found that when ZZ9 was intercropped with soybean, the bacterial diversity increased significantly as compared to that when ZZ1 was used. ZZ9 played a major role in changing the bacterial environment of the root system by affecting the diversity of rhizosphere bacteria, forming a rhizosphere environment more conducive to the growth of sugarcane. In addition, our study found that ZZ1 and ZZ9 had differed significantly in their utilization of nutrients. For example, nutrients were affected by different functional genes in processes such as denitrification, P-uptake and transport, inorganic P-solubilization, and organic P-mineralization. These results are significant in terms of providing guidance to the sugarcane industry, particularly for the intercropping of sugarcane and soybean in Guangxi, China.
Project description:The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized at four plant growth stages using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis and compared to that of unplanted bulk soil. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes in the rice rhizosphere were on average twice that of unplanted bulk soil, indicating a stimulation of microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Soil environment type (i.e., rhizosphere versus bulk soil) had a greater effect on the community structure than did time (e.g., plant growth stage). Numerous phyla were affected by the presence of rice plants, but the strongest effects were observed for Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. With respect to functional groups of microorganisms, potential iron reducers (e.g., Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter) and fermenters (e.g., Clostridiaceae, Opitutaceae) were notably enriched in the rhizosphere environment. A Herbaspirillum species was always more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and was enriched in the rhizosphere during the early stage of plant growth.
Project description:Understanding how biotic and abiotic factors govern the assembly of rhizosphere-microbial communities is a long-standing goal in microbial ecology. In phytoremediation research, where plants are used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils, a deeper understanding of rhizosphere-microbial ecology is needed to fully exploit the potential of microbial-assisted phytoremediation. This study investigated whether Grime's competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal (CSR) theory could be used to describe the impact of cadmium (Cd) and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the assembly of soil-bacterial communities using Illumina 16S rRNA profiling and the predictive metagenomic-profiling program, PICRUSt. Using predictions based on CSR theory, we hypothesized that Cd and the presence of a rhizosphere would affect community assembly. We predicted that the additional resource availability in the rhizosphere would enrich for competitive life strategists, while the presence of Cd would select for stress-tolerators. Traits identified as competitive followed CSR predictions, discriminating between rhizosphere and bulk-soil communities whilst stress-tolerance traits increased with Cd dose, but only in bulk-soil communities. These findings suggest that a bacterium's competitive attributes are critical to its ability to occupy and proliferate in a Cd-contaminated rhizosphere. Ruderal traits, which relate to community re-colonization potential, were synergistically decreased by the presence of the rhizosphere and Cd dose. Taken together this microcosm study suggests that the CSR theory is broadly applicable to microbial communities. Further work toward developing a simplified and robust strategy for microbial CSR classification will provide an ecologically meaningful framework to interpret community-level changes across a range of biomes.
Project description:Maize domestication and breeding have resulted in drastic and well documented changes in aboveground traits, but belowground effects on root system functioning and rhizosphere microbial communities remain poorly understood, despite their critical importance for nutrient and water acquisition. We investigated the rhizosphere microbial community composition and structure of ten Zea mays accessions along an evolutionary transect (two teosinte, three inbred maize lines, and five modern maize hybrids) grown in nutrient depleted soil from a low input agricultural system. Microbial community analysis revealed significant differences in community composition between soil compartments (proximal vs. distal rhizosphere) and between plant genetic groups (teosinte, inbred, and modern hybrid). Only a small portion of the microbial community was differentially selected across plant genetic groups: 3.7% of prokaryotic community members and 4.9% of fungal community members were significantly associated with a specific plant genetic group. Indicator species analysis showed the greatest differentiation between modern hybrids and the other two plant genetic groups. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that microbial co-occurrence patterns of the inbred maize lines' rhizosphere were significantly more similar to those of the teosintes than to the modern hybrids. Our results suggest that advances in hybrid development significantly impacted rhizosphere microbial communities and network assembly.
Project description:Understanding the microbial community and function are crucial knowledge for crop management. In this study, bacterial and fungal community structures both rhizosphere and endosphere in kiwifruit were analyzed to gain our knowledge in kiwifruit microbiome. Microbial community in rhizosphere was less variation than endosphere community. Functional prediction results demonstrated that abundance of saprotrophic fungi was similar in both rhizosphere and endosphere, but potential pathogenic fungi was more abundance in endosphere than in rhizosphere. This finding suggested that maintain healthy soil is the first priority to protect the host plant against biotic stresses.