Project description:Prostate cancers (PC) with loss of the potent tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 exhibit poor outcomes that include resistance to androgen receptor (AR) pathway antagonists. TP53 and RB1 also influence cell plasticity and are frequently lost in PCs with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Therapeutic strategies that address these aggressive variant PCs are urgently needed. Using deep genomic profiling of 410 metastatic biopsies, we determined the relationships between combined TP53 and RB1 loss and PC phenotypes. Notably, 40% of TP53/RB1 deficient tumors were classified as AR-active adenocarcinomas indicating that NE differentiation is not an obligate consequence of TP53/RB1 inactivation. A gene expression signature reflecting TP53/RB1 loss was associated with diminished responses to AR antagonists and reduced survival. These tumors exhibit high proliferation rates and evidence of elevated DNA repair processes. While tumor cells lacking TP53/RB1 were highly resistant to all single agent therapeutics, the combination of pharmacological PARP and ATR inhibition produced significant responses, reflecting a clinically-exploitable vulnerability resulting from replication stress. Overall design: RNA sequencing of human prostate tumor cell lines and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) tumors using Illumina TruSeq Stranded mRNA Library prep and sequenced on Illumina HiSeq 2500.
Project description:Prostate cancers (PCs) with loss of the potent tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 exhibit poor outcomes. TP53 and RB1 also influence cell plasticity and are frequently lost in PCs with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Therapeutic strategies that address these aggressive variant PCs are urgently needed. Using deep genomic profiling of 410 metastatic biopsies, we determine the relationships between combined TP53 and RB1 loss and PC phenotypes. Notably, 40% of TP53/RB1-deficient tumors are classified as AR-active adenocarcinomas, indicating that NE differentiation is not an obligate consequence of TP53/RB1 inactivation. A gene expression signature reflecting TP53/RB1 loss is associated with diminished responses to AR antagonists and reduced survival. These tumors exhibit high proliferation rates and evidence of elevated DNA repair processes. While tumor cells lacking TP53/RB1 are highly resistant to all single-agent therapeutics tested, the combination of PARP and ATR inhibition is found to produce significant responses, reflecting a clinically exploitable vulnerability resulting from replication stress.
Project description:Some cancers evade targeted therapies through a mechanism known as lineage plasticity, whereby tumor cells acquire phenotypic characteristics of a cell lineage whose survival no longer depends on the drug target. We use in vitro and in vivo human prostate cancer models to show that these tumors can develop resistance to the antiandrogen drug enzalutamide by a phenotypic shift from androgen receptor (AR)-dependent luminal epithelial cells to AR-independent basal-like cells. This lineage plasticity is enabled by the loss of TP53 and RB1 function, is mediated by increased expression of the reprogramming transcription factor SOX2, and can be reversed by restoring TP53 and RB1 function or by inhibiting SOX2 expression. Thus, mutations in tumor suppressor genes can create a state of increased cellular plasticity that, when challenged with antiandrogen therapy, promotes resistance through lineage switching.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrations in TP53, PTEN and RB1 are key drivers of therapy resistance in prostate cancer. Up to 50% of prostate cancers harbor ETS gene rearrangements, a potentially compounding aggressive biological event. Little is known about the impact of aggregate aberrations and gene fusion events in prostate cancer. METHODS:Using cBioportal for Cancer Genomics, an open-access resource for exploration of multidimensional cancer genomics data, we integrate whole-exome sequencing, gene expression, and histopathology with longitudinal clinical outcomes. Subsets of prostate tumors with aberrations in all three genes TP53, PTEN and RB1 were identified and correlated with prevalence of gene fusions. Prostate tumors with aberrations in TP53, PTEN, and RB1 were termed "triple aberrant prostate cancer" (TAPC). RESULTS:Of 479 metastatic prostate tumors, 195 (40.7%) were TAPC, versus 21 of 594 (3.5%) of primary prostate tumors. Patients with metastatic TAPC showed a trend toward poorer overall survival than patients harboring 0, 1 or 2 of these aberrations. Twenty-five distinct fusions were identified, all involving ETS transcription factors. Both primary and metastatic prostate cancers with ETS fusions were significantly more likely to be TAPC than those without ETS fusions. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified a unique molecular signature consisting of combined aberrations in TP53, PTEN and RB1 that is associated with poorer overall survival, as well as increasing prevalence of ETS gene fusions and differential gene expression patterns favoring aggressive disease and tumor progression. Identification of this subset of patients could inform prognostic decisions and provide a rationale for more aggressive or unique therapeutic approaches.
Project description:To determine the frequency and association of polymorphisms in the TP53 and RB1 genes with clinical characteristics in a group of children with retinoblastoma (RB) in northern Mexico.A prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study of 11 patients diagnosed with RB was conducted. Endpoint PCR and high-resolution real-time PCR were performed. Chi-square and Student t tests were used to evaluate associations between variables. Allelic frequencies, as well as genotypic and Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums, were evaluated using Guo and Thompson's method.We found a statistically significant difference between the polymorphism RB1-GG/rs9568036 and tumor chemoresistance (p<0.05). The allelic variants RB1-AA and AG/rs9568036 were determined to be associated with tumor chemosensitivity (p<0.05). A statistically significant relation between the polymorphism RB1-GG/rs9568036 and males (p = 0.0386), rate ratio (RR) = 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76-5.32), as well as between the allelic variants RB1-AA and AG/rs9568036 and females (p = 0.0027), RR = 8.0 (95% CI = 1.28-50.04), was observed. We also observed a statistically significant association between the rs1042522 polymorphism in the TP53 gene and unilateral presentation of the disease.The rs9568036 polymorphism in the RB1 gene and the allelic variants can be associated with type of response to medical therapy and associated with male sex, while the allelic variant rs1042522 polymorphism in the TP53 gene is associated with the unilateral presentation of the disease in a group of Mexican children with RB.
Project description:The inherent plasticity of tumor cells provides a mechanism of resistance to many molecularly targeted therapies, exemplified by adeno-to-neuroendocrine lineage transitions seen in prostate and lung cancer. Here we investigate the root cause of this lineage plasticity in a primary murine prostate organoid model that mirrors the lineage transition seen in patients. These cells lose luminal identity within weeks following deletion of Trp53 and Rb1, ultimately acquiring an Ar-negative, Syp+ phenotype after orthotopic in vivo transplantation. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis revealed progressive mixing of luminal-basal lineage features after tumor suppressor gene deletion, accompanied by activation of Jak/Stat and Fgfr pathway signaling and interferon-a and -g gene expression programs prior to any morphologic changes. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Jak1/2 in combination with FGFR blockade restored luminal differentiation and sensitivity to antiandrogen therapy in models with residual AR expression. Collectively, we show lineage plasticity initiates quickly as a largely cell-autonomous process and, through newly developed computational approaches, identify a pharmacological strategy that restores lineage identity using clinical grade inhibitors. Overall design: Six prostate organoid samples: Wild-type prostate organoid isolated from TP53 loxP/loxP and RB1 loxP/loxP mice and cultured under standard organoid conditions with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure Prostate organoid at 2 weeks following cre mediated RB1 and TP53 deletion and cultured under standard organoid conditions with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure Prostate organoid at 4 weeks following cre mediated RB1 and TP53 deletion and cultured under standard organoid conditions with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure Prostate organoid at 8 weeks following cre mediated RB1 and TP53 deletion and cultured under standard organoid conditions with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure Prostate organoid at 4 weeks following cre mediated RB1 and TP53 deletion and cultured under standard organoid conditions withre enzalutamide (ENZ) exposure Prostate organoid at 8 weeks following cre mediated RB1 and TP53 deletion and cultured under standard organoid conditions withre enzalutamide (ENZ) exposure
Project description:INTRODUCTION:EGFR-mutant lung cancers are clinically and genomically heterogeneous with concurrent RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1)/tumor protein p53 (TP53) alterations identifying a subset at increased risk for small cell transformation. The genomic alterations that induce lineage plasticity are unknown. METHODS:Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers, identified by next-generation sequencing from 2014 to 2018, were compared to patients with untreated, metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers without both RB1 and TP53 alterations. Time to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation, overall survival, SCLC transformation rate, and genomic alterations were evaluated. RESULTS:Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers represented 5% (43 of 863) of EGFR-mutant lung cancers but were uniquely at risk for transformation (7 of 39, 18%), with no transformations in EGFR-mutant lung cancers without baseline TP53 and RB1 alterations. Irrespective of transformation, patients with EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers had a shorter time to discontinuation than EGFR/TP53- and EGFR-mutant -only cancers (9.5 versus 12.3 versus 36.6 months, respectively, p = 2 × 10-9). The triple-mutant population had a higher incidence of whole-genome doubling compared to NSCLC and SCLC at large (80% versus 34%, p < 5 × 10-9 versus 51%, p < 0.002, respectively) and further enrichment in triple-mutant cancers with eventual small cell histology (seven of seven pre-transformed plus four of four baseline SCLC versus 23 of 32 never transformed, respectively, p = 0.05). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like mutation signature was also enriched in triple-mutant lung cancers that transformed (false discovery rate = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers are at unique risk of histologic transformation, with 25% presenting with de novo SCLC or eventual small cell transformation. Triple-mutant lung cancers are enriched in whole-genome doubling and Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like hypermutation which may represent early genomic determinants of lineage plasticity.
Project description:TP53, a well-known tumour suppressor gene that encodes p53, is frequently inactivated by mutation or deletion in most human tumours. A tremendous effort has been made to restore p53 activity in cancer therapies. However, no effective p53-based therapy has been successfully translated into clinical cancer treatment owing to the complexity of p53 signalling. Here we demonstrate that genomic deletion of TP53 frequently encompasses essential neighbouring genes, rendering cancer cells with hemizygous TP53 deletion vulnerable to further suppression of such genes. POLR2A is identified as such a gene that is almost always co-deleted with TP53 in human cancers. It encodes the largest and catalytic subunit of the RNA polymerase II complex, which is specifically inhibited by ?-amanitin. Our analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) databases reveals that POLR2A expression levels are tightly correlated with its gene copy numbers in human colorectal cancer. Suppression of POLR2A with ?-amanitin or small interfering RNAs selectively inhibits the proliferation, survival and tumorigenic potential of colorectal cancer cells with hemizygous TP53 loss in a p53-independent manner. Previous clinical applications of ?-amanitin have been limited owing to its liver toxicity. However, we found that ?-amanitin-based antibody-drug conjugates are highly effective therapeutic agents with reduced toxicity. Here we show that low doses of ?-amanitin-conjugated anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody lead to complete tumour regression in mouse models of human colorectal cancer with hemizygous deletion of POLR2A. We anticipate that inhibiting POLR2A will be a new therapeutic approach for human cancers containing such common genomic alterations.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low-like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration-approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC.
Project description:Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL) if their simultaneous mutations lead to cell death, but each individual mutation does not. Targeting SL partners of mutated cancer genes can kill cancer cells specifically, but leave normal cells intact. We present an integrated approach to uncovering SL pairs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Screening verified SL pairs using microarray gene expression data of cancerous and normal tissues, we first identified potential functionally relevant (simultaneously differentially expressed) gene pairs. From the top-ranked pairs, ~20 genes were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in 171 CRC patients. To find novel SL pairs, all 169 combined pairs from the individual IHC were synergistically correlated to five clinicopathological features, e.g. overall survival. Of the 11 predicted SL pairs, MSH2-POLB and CSNK1E-MYC were consistent with literature, and we validated the top two pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53 using RNAi knockdown and small molecule inhibitors of CSNK1E in isogenic HCT-116 and RKO cells. Furthermore, synthetic lethality of CSNK1E and TP53 was verified in mouse model. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that CSNK1E-P53, CTNNB1-P53, MSH2-RB1, and BRCA1-WNT5A were independent prognosis markers from stage, with CSNK1E-P53 applicable to early-stage and the remaining three throughout all stages. Our findings suggest that CSNK1E is a promising target for TP53-mutant CRC patients which constitute ~40% to 50% of patients, while to date safety regarding inhibition of TP53 is controversial. Thus the integrated approach is useful in finding novel SL pairs for cancer therapeutics, and it is readily accessible and applicable to other cancers.