Project description:Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp, is a good model organism to study developmental and evolutionary genetics and to evaluate the interactions between insect hosts and their symbionts. Wolbachia may be the most prevalent endosymbiont among insect species due to their special ability to improve the fitness of the infected hosts. Transinfection of bacteria or fungi could substantially alter the expression of host immune system components. However, few studies have focused on the effects of native Wolbachia infection. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the proteomics of N. vitripennis following Wolbachia infection.We studied the proteomics of N. vitripennis following native Wolbachia infection and in antibiotic-treated Wolbachia-free samples using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, accompanying with some ecological experiments.In total, 3,096 proteins were found to be associated with a wide range of biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components. Interestingly, there were few significant changes in immune or reproductive proteins between samples with and without Wolbachia infection. Differentially expressed proteins were involved in the binding process, catalytic activity, and the metabolic process, as confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Invasion of any pathogen or bacterium within a short time can cause an immunoreaction in the host. Our results implied that during the long process of coexistence, the immune system of the host was not as sensitive as when the symbiont initially infected the host, implying that the organisms had gradually adjusted to cohabitation.
Project description:Parasitism is a special interspecific relationship in insects. Unlike most other ectoparasites, Nasonia vitripennis spend most of its life cycle (egg, larvae, pupae, and early adult stage) inside the pupae of flies, which is covered with hard puparium. Microbes play important roles in host development and help insect hosts to adapt to various environments. How the microbes of parasitic wasp respond to different fly hosts living in such close relationships motivated this investigation. In this study, we used N. vitripennis and three different fly pupa hosts (Lucilia sericata, Sarcophaga marshalli, and Musca domestica) to address this question, as well as to illustrate the potential transfer of bacteria through the trophic food chains. We found that N. vitripennis from different fly pupa hosts showed distinct microbiota, which means that the different fly hosts could affect the bacterial communities of their parasitic wasps. Some bacteria showed potential horizontal transfer through the trophic food chains, from the food through the fly to the parasitic wasp. We also found that the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia could transferred from the fly host to the parasite and correlated with the bacterial communities of the corresponding parasitic wasps. Our findings provide new insight to the microbial interactions between parasite and host.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whilst adaptive facultative sex allocation has been widely studied at the phenotypic level across a broad range of organisms, we still know remarkably little about its genetic architecture. Here, we explore the genome-wide basis of sex ratio variation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, perhaps the best studied organism in terms of sex allocation, and well known for its response to local mate competition. RESULTS:We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for single foundress sex ratios using iso-female lines derived from the recently developed outbred N. vitripennis laboratory strain HVRx. The iso-female lines capture a sample of the genetic variation in HVRx and we present them as the first iteration of the Nasonia vitripennis Genome Reference Panel (NVGRP 1.0). This panel provides an assessment of the standing genetic variation for sex ratio in the study population. Using the NVGRP, we discovered a cluster of 18 linked SNPs, encompassing 9 annotated loci associated with sex ratio variation. Furthermore, we found evidence that sex ratio has a shared genetic basis with clutch size on three different chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS:Our approach provides a thorough description of the quantitative genetic basis of sex ratio variation in Nasonia at the genome level and reveals a number of inter-related candidate loci underlying sex allocation regulation.
Project description:Providencia rettgeri is a common insect-associated Gram-negative bacterium. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. rettgeri NVIT03, the most common bacterial symbiont of the insect hymenopteran model Nasonia vitripennis. This symbiont is also part of the Sarcophaga bullata pupal microbiome that Nasonia spp. parasitize and that critically influences the development of the wasp.
Project description:Nasonia vitripennis is an emerging insect model system with haplodiploid genetics. It holds a key position within the insect phylogeny for comparative, evolutionary and behavioral genetic studies. The draft genomes for N. vitripennis and two sibling species were published in 2010, yet a considerable amount of transcriptiome data have since been produced thereby enabling improvements to the original (OGS1.2) annotated gene set. We describe and apply the EvidentialGene method used to produce an updated gene set (OGS2). We also carry out comparative analyses showcasing the usefulness of the revised annotated gene set.The revised annotation (OGS2) now consists of 24,388 genes with supporting evidence, compared to 18,850 for OGS1.2. Improvements include the nearly complete annotation of untranslated regions (UTR) for 97 % of the genes compared to 28 % of genes for OGS1.2. The fraction of RNA-Seq validated introns also grow from 85 to 98 % in this latest gene set. The EST and RNA-Seq expression data provide support for several non-protein coding loci and 7712 alternative transcripts for 4146 genes. Notably, we report 180 alternative transcripts for the gene lola. Nasonia now has among the most complete insect gene set; only 27 conserved single copy orthologs in arthropods are missing from OGS2. Its genome also contains 2.1-fold more duplicated genes and 1.4-fold more single copy genes than the Drosophila melanogaster genome. The Nasonia gene count is larger than those of other sequenced hymenopteran species, owing both to improvements in the genome annotation and to unique genes in the wasp lineage. We identify 1008 genes and 171 gene families that deviate significantly from other hymenopterans in their rates of protein evolution and duplication history, respectively. We also provide an analysis of alternative splicing that reveals that genes with no annotated isoforms are characterized by shorter transcripts, fewer introns, faster protein evolution and higher probabilities of duplication than genes having alternative transcripts.Genome-wide expression data greatly improves the annotation of the N. vitripennis genome, by increasing the gene count, reducing the number of missing genes and providing more comprehensive data on splicing and gene structure. The improved gene set identifies lineage-specific genomic features tied to Nasonia's biology, as well as numerous novel genes. OGS2 and its associated search tools are available at http://arthropods.eugenes.org/EvidentialGene/nasonia/ , www.hymenopteragenome.org/nasonia/ and waspAtlas: www.tinyURL.com/waspAtlas . The EvidentialGene pipeline is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/evidentialgene/ .
Project description:Nasonia vitripennis is a parasitoid wasp which is becoming an important model organism for parasitism, epigenetics, evolutionary and developmental genetics. WaspAtlas is a new gene database in which we have compiled annotation data from all available N. vitripennis releases along with a wealth of transcriptomic data, methylation data and original analyses and annotations to form a comprehensive resource to aid the study of Nasonia. WaspAtlas allows users to explore gene structure and function, to compare expression data across sexes, tissues, developmental stages and conditions, and to explore published data relating to gene(s) of interest. WaspAtlas is easy to navigate and the database is easily searchable through the web interface. Detailed illustrations are provided for splice variants, protein domain predictions and the results of analyses. The website also functions as an analysis platform analysis for Nasonia, providing a set of tools designed to perform common analyses including GO term overrepresentation and RNAi off-target prediction. WaspAtlas will act as a hub for published data relating to Nasonia genes, and will be continually updated with new data to reflect the state of Nasonia-omics research. Database URL: http://waspatlas.com.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, lactic acid-producing coccus which can be found as a member of the gut microbiome in many animal species and is a potential pathogen in humans. Here, we describe the genome sequence of an E. faecalis strain isolated from the gut microbiome of the hymenopteran model Nasonia vitripennis.
Project description:The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia has rapidly become a genetic model system for developmental and evolutionary biology. The release of its genome sequence led to the development of high-resolution genomic tools, for both interspecific and intraspecific research, which has resulted in great advances in understanding Nasonia biology. To further advance the utility of Nasonia vitripennis as a genetic model system and to be able to fully exploit the advantages of its fully sequenced and annotated genome, we developed a genetically variable and well-characterized experimental population. In this study, we describe the establishment of the genetically diverse HVRx laboratory population from strains collected from the field in the Netherlands. We established a maintenance method that retains genetic variation over generations of culturing in the laboratory. As a characterization of its genetic composition, we provide data on the standing genetic variation and estimate the effective population size (N(e)) by microsatellite analysis. A genome-wide description of polymorphism is provided through pooled resequencing, which yielded 417,331 high-quality SNPs spanning all five Nasonia chromosomes. The HVRx population and its characterization are freely available as a community resource for investigators seeking to elucidate the genetic basis of complex trait variation using the Nasonia model system.
Project description:The extraordinary range in the degree of sexual dimorphism (SD) among animal species is widely perceived to be caused in part by differences in patterns of sexual selection, but sex-specific adaptations and sex chromosome differences also play a role. Studies in insects have discovered a substantial number of sex-biased genes, but little is known about the epigenetic basis of SD. The degree and genome-wide distribution of sex-biased expression become interesting questions in hymenoptera species with haplodiploid sex-determination. To study the genetic and epigenetic architecture of SD and understand the conservation and evolution of sex-biased expression in a haplodiploid system that lacks sex chromosomes, we performed RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in female and male adult samples of two parasitoid wasp species, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti. More than 75% of the expressed genes displayed significantly sex-biased expression. Both the number and the degree of sex-biased genes are higher than insects like Drosophila melanogaster, which have sex-chromosome mediated sex determination. Females from the two Nasonia species have far more similar expression profiles than does the contrast between the two sexes within either species. Interestingly, the extremely male- and female-biased genes are enriched for totally different functional categories: male-biased genes are highly enriched for key enzymes in sex-pheromone synthesis; female-biased genes are enriched for nuclear-located genes that are responsible for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Unlike gene expression profiles, DNA methylomes are more similar within species, and no stable differentially methylated genes have been found between the two sexes, suggesting that DNA methylation is not directly responsible for the molecular basis of SD. However, methylation status does influence sex-biased expression: 80% of female-biased genes are methylated, which is more than two-fold higher than the genome average (30%); almost all male-biased and sex-specific genes are non-methylated, which is consistent with the fact that methylated genes have house-keeping functions and a broader expression breadth. Evolutionarily, male-biased genes have greater sequence divergence between the two species, and they are more likely to have a functional paralog in the Nasonia genome. Sex-specific genes have significantly higher non-synonymous substitution rates and dN/dS ratios. In addition, local clusters of sex-biased genes in the genome may have epigenetic properties similar to the sex chromosome. In summary, Nasonia accomplish a striking degree of sex-differential expression through a difference in ploidy along with associated differences in methylations status. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 24-hour adult whole body samples of Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti using Iilumina sequencing.