Project description:In HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, UHRF1, LIG1, or luciferase was knocked down by shRNA followed by selection with puromycin for 2 days. DNA was analyzed 12 days after viral transduction. Overall design: Bisulphite converted DNA from the 3 samples were hybridised to the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.
Project description:In HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, UHRF1 was knocked down by shRNA (puromycin) while simultaneously transduced with wildtype or mutant UHRF1 (blasticidin) or NDI1 (- control) followed by dual antibiotic selection. DNA was analyzed 11 days after viral transduction. Overall design: Bisulphite converted DNA from the 4 samples were hybridised to the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.
Project description:Faithful inheritance of DNA methylation across cell division requires DNMT1 and its accessory factor UHRF1. However, how this axis is regulated to ensure DNA methylation homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here we show that SET8, a cell-cycle-regulated protein methyltransferase, controls protein stability of both UHRF1 and DNMT1 through methylation-mediated, ubiquitin-dependent degradation and consequently prevents excessive DNA methylation. SET8 methylates UHRF1 at lysine 385 and this modification leads to ubiquitination and degradation of UHRF1. In contrast, LSD1 stabilizes both UHRF1 and DNMT1 by demethylation. Importantly, SET8 and LSD1 oppositely regulate global DNA methylation and do so most likely through regulating the level of UHRF1 than DNMT1. Finally, we show that UHRF1 downregulation in G2/M by SET8 has a role in suppressing DNMT1-mediated methylation on post-replicated DNA. Altogether, our study reveals a novel role of SET8 in promoting DNA methylation homeostasis and identifies UHRF1 as the hub for tuning DNA methylation through dynamic protein methylation.
Project description:The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance.
Project description:Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a key epigenetic regulator of DNA methylation maintenance and heterochromatin formation. The roles of UHRF1 in DNA damage repair also have been emphasized in recent years. However, the regulatory mechanism of UHRF1 remains elusive. In this study, we showed that UHRF1 is methylated by SET7 and demethylation is catalyzed by LSD1. In addition, methylation of UHRF1 is induced in response to DNA damage and its phosphorylation in S phase is a prerequisite for interaction with SET7. Furthermore, UHRF1 methylation catalyzes the conjugation of polyubiquitin chains to PCNA and promotes homologous recombination for DNA repair. SET7-mediated UHRF1 methylation is also shown to be essential for cell viability against DNA damage. Our data revealed the regulatory mechanism underlying the UHRF1 methylation status by SET7 and LSD1 in double-strand break repair pathway.
Project description:A fundamental challenge in mammalian biology has been the elucidation of mechanisms linking DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. Human UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like PHD and RING finger domain-containing 1) has multiple domains that bind chromatin, and it is implicated genetically in the maintenance of DNA methylation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying DNA methylation regulation by UHRF1 are poorly defined. Here we show that UHRF1 association with methylated histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) is required for DNA methylation maintenance. We further show that UHRF1 association with H3K9 methylation is insensitive to adjacent H3 S10 phosphorylation--a known mitotic 'phospho-methyl switch'. Notably, we demonstrate that UHRF1 mitotic chromatin association is necessary for DNA methylation maintenance through regulation of the stability of DNA methyltransferase-1. Collectively, our results define a previously unknown link between H3K9 methylation and the faithful epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation, establishing a notable mitotic role for UHRF1 in this process.
Project description:The methylation of cytosine at CG sites in the mammalian genome is dynamically reprogrammed during gametogenesis and preimplantation development. It was previously shown that oocyte-derived DNMT1 (a maintenance methyltransferase) is essential for maintaining and propagating CG methylation at imprinting control regions in preimplantation embryos. In mammalian somatic cells, hemimethylated-CG-binding protein UHRF1 plays a critical role in maintaining CG methylation by recruiting DNMT1 to hemimethylated CG sites. However, the role of UHRF1 in oogenesis and preimplantation development is unknown. In the present study, we show that UHRF1 is mainly, but not exclusively, localized in the cytoplasm of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. However, smaller amounts of UHRF1 existed in the nucleus, consistent with the expected role in DNA methylation. We then generated oocyte-specific Uhrf1 knockout (KO) mice and found that, although oogenesis was itself unaffected, a large proportion of the embryos derived from the KO oocytes died before reaching the blastocyst stage (a maternal effect). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing revealed that blastocysts derived from KO oocytes have a greatly reduced level of CG methylation, suggesting that maternal UHRF1 is essential for maintaining CG methylation, particularly at the imprinting control regions, in preimplantation embryos. Surprisingly, UHRF1 was also found to contribute to de novo CG and non-CG methylation during oocyte growth: in Uhrf1 KO oocytes, transcriptionally-inactive regions gained less methylation, while actively transcribed regions, including the imprinting control regions, were unaffected or only slightly affected. We also found that de novo methylation was defective during the late stage of oocyte growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the role of UHRF1 in de novo DNA methylation in vivo. Our study reveals multiple functions of UHRF1 during the global epigenetic reprogramming of oocytes and early embryos.
Project description:Mammalian DNMT1 is mainly responsible for maintenance DNA methylation that is critical in maintaining stem cell pluripotency and controlling lineage specification during early embryonic development. A number of studies have demonstrated that DNMT1 is an auto-inhibited enzyme and its enzymatic activity is allosterically regulated by a number of interacting partners. UHRF1 has previously been reported to regulate DNMT1 in multiple ways, including control of substrate specificity and the proper genome targeting. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of DNMT1 enzymatic activity by UHRF1 and highlight a number of unresolved questions.