Project description:Volcanic and geothermal areas are hot and often acidic environments that emit geothermal gasses, including H2, CO and CO2. Geothermal gasses mix with air, creating conditions where thermoacidophilic aerobic H2- and CO-oxidizing microorganisms could thrive. Here, we describe the isolation of two Kyrpidia spormannii strains, which can grow autotrophically by oxidizing H2 and CO with oxygen. These strains, FAVT5 and COOX1, were isolated from the geothermal soils of the Favara Grande on Pantelleria Island, Italy. Extended physiology studies were performed with K. spormannii FAVT5, and showed that this strain grows optimally at 55°C and pH 5.0. The highest growth rate is obtained using H2 as energy source (?max 0.19 ± 0.02 h-1, doubling time 3.6 h). K. spormannii FAVT5 can additionally grow on a variety of organic substrates, including some alcohols, volatile fatty acids and amino acids. The genome of each strain encodes for two O2-tolerant hydrogenases belonging to [NiFe] group 2a hydrogenases and transcriptome studies using K. spormannii FAVT5 showed that both hydrogenases are expressed under H2 limiting conditions. So far no Firmicutes except K. spormannii FAVT5 have been reported to exhibit a high affinity for H2, with a Ks of 327 ± 24 nM. The genomes of each strain encode for one putative CO dehydrogenase, belonging to Form II aerobic CO dehydrogenases. The genomic potential and physiological properties of these Kyrpidia strains seem to be quite well adapted to thrive in the harsh environmental volcanic conditions.
Project description:Bacillus tusciae Bonjour & Aragno 1994 is a hydrogen-oxidizing, thermoacidophilic spore former that lives as a facultative chemolithoautotroph in solfataras. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing was well established at the time of the initial description of the organism, 16S sequence data were not available and the strain was placed into the genus Bacillus based on limited chemotaxonomic information. Despite the now obvious misplacement of strain T2 as a member of the genus Bacillus in 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic trees, the misclassification remained uncorrected for many years, which was likely due to the extremely difficult, analysis-hampering cultivation conditions and poor growth rate of the strain. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation of strain T2T (= DSM 2912 = NBRC 15312) and propose its reclassification as the type strain of a new species, Kyrpidia tusciae, and the type species of the new genus Kyrpidia, which is a sister-group of Alicyclobacillus. The family Alicyclobacillaceae da Costa and Rainey, 2010 is emended. The 3,384,766 bp genome with its 3,323 protein-coding and 78 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Kyrpidia sp. strain EA-1 is a thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium isolated from hydrothermal systems at São Miguel Island, Portugal. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain assembled to a single circular chromosome. The genome spans 3,352,175 bp, with a GC content of 58.7%.
Project description:The recent discovery of a coenzyme B12-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) mutase isomerizing 3-hydroxybutyryl- and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA in the mesophilic bacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 (N. Yaneva, J. Schuster, F. Schäfer, V. Lede, D. Przybylski, T. Paproth, H. Harms, R. H. Müller, and T. Rohwerder, J Biol Chem 287:15502-15511, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.314690) could pave the way for a complete biosynthesis route to the building block chemical 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid from renewable carbon. However, the enzyme catalyzes only the conversion of the stereoisomer (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA at reasonable rates, which seriously hampers an efficient combination of mutase and well-established bacterial poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) overflow metabolism. Here, we characterize a new 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA mutase found in the thermophilic knallgas bacterium Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912. Reconstituted mutase subunits revealed highest activity at 55°C. Surprisingly, already at 30°C, isomerization of (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was about 7,000 times more efficient than with the mutase from strain L108. The most striking structural difference between the two mutases, likely determining stereospecificity, is a replacement of active-site residue Asp found in strain L108 at position 117 with Val in the enzyme from strain DSM 2912, resulting in a reversed polarity at this binding site. Overall sequence comparison indicates that both enzymes descended from different prokaryotic thermophilic methylmalonyl-CoA mutases. Concomitant expression of PHB enzymes delivering (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (beta-ketothiolase PhaA and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase PhaB from Cupriavidus necator) with the new mutase in Escherichia coli JM109 and BL21 strains incubated on gluconic acid at 37°C led to the production of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid at maximal titers of 0.7 mM. Measures to improve production in E. coli, such as coexpression of the chaperone MeaH and repression of thioesterase II, are discussed.