Project description:Candida glabrata is a human commensal and an opportunistic human fungal pathogen. It is more closely related to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae than other Candida spp. Compared with S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata exhibits higher innate tolerance to various environmental stressors, including hyperthermal stress. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms of C. glabrata adaptation to heat stress via adaptive laboratory evolution. We show that all parallel evolved populations readily adapt to hyperthermal challenge (from 47?°C to 50?°C) and exhibit convergence in evolved phenotypes with extensive cross-tolerance to various other environmental stressors such as oxidants, acids, and alcohols. Genome resequencing identified fixation of mutations in CgSTE11 in all parallel evolved populations. The CgSTE11 homolog in S. cerevisiae plays crucial roles in various mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, but its role is less understood in C. glabrata. Subsequent verification confirmed that CgSTE11 is important in hyperthermal tolerance and the observed extensive cross-tolerance to other environmental stressors. These results support the hypothesis that CgSTE11 mediates cross-talks between MAPK signaling pathways in C. glabrata in response to environmental challenges.
Project description:The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata is a member of the Saccharomycetaceae yeasts. Like its close relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it underwent a whole-genome duplication followed by an extensive loss of genes. Its genome contains a large number of very long tandem repeats, called megasatellites. In order to determine the whole replication program of the C. glabrata genome and its general chromosomal organization, we used deep-sequencing and chromosome conformation capture experiments.We identified 253 replication fork origins, genome wide. Centromeres, HML and HMR loci, and most histone genes are replicated early, whereas natural chromosomal breakpoints are located in late-replicating regions. In addition, 275 autonomously replicating sequences (ARS) were identified during ARS-capture experiments, and their relative fitness was determined during growth competition. Analysis of ARSs allowed us to identify a 17-bp consensus, similar to the S. cerevisiae ARS consensus sequence but slightly more constrained. Megasatellites are not in close proximity to replication origins or termini. Using chromosome conformation capture, we also show that early origins tend to cluster whereas non-subtelomeric megasatellites do not cluster in the yeast nucleus.Despite a shorter cell cycle, the C. glabrata replication program shares unexpected striking similarities to S. cerevisiae, in spite of their large evolutionary distance and the presence of highly repetitive large tandem repeats in C. glabrata. No correlation could be found between the replication program and megasatellites, suggesting that their formation and propagation might not be directly caused by replication fork initiation or termination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Candida glabrata is a pathogenic yeast of increasing medical concern. It has been regarded as asexual since it was first described in 1917, yet phylogenetic analyses have revealed that it is more closely related to sexual yeasts than other Candida species. We show here that the C. glabrata genome contains many genes apparently involved in sexual reproduction. RESULTS:By genome survey sequencing, we find that genes involved in mating and meiosis are as numerous in C. glabrata as in the sexual species Kluyveromyces delphensis, which is its closest known relative. C. glabrata has a putative mating-type (MAT) locus and a pheromone gene (MFALPHA2), as well as orthologs of at least 31 other Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that have no known roles apart from mating or meiosis, including FUS3, IME1 and SMK1. CONCLUSIONS:We infer that C. glabrata is likely to have an undiscovered sexual stage in its life cycle, similar to that recently proposed for C. albicans. The two Candida species represent two distantly related yeast lineages that have independently become both pathogenic and 'asexual'. Parallel evolution in the two lineages as they adopted mammalian hosts resulted in separate but analogous switches from overtly sexual to cryptically sexual life cycles, possibly in response to defense by the host immune system.
Project description:Candida glabrata is the second most common pathogenic Candida species and has emerged as a leading cause of nosocomial fungal infections. Its reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and its close relationship to Saccharomyces cerevisiae make it an interesting research focus. Although its genome sequence was published in 2004, little is known about its transcriptional dynamics. Here, we provide a detailed RNA-Seq-based analysis of the transcriptomic landscape of C. glabrata in nutrient-rich media, as well as under nitrosative stress and during pH shift. Using RNA-Seq data together with state-of-the-art gene prediction tools, we refined the annotation of the C. glabrata genome and predicted 49 novel protein-coding genes. Of these novel genes, 14 have homologs in S. cerevisiae and six are shared with other Candida species. We experimentally validated four novel protein-coding genes of which two are differentially regulated during pH shift and interaction with human neutrophils, indicating a potential role in host-pathogen interaction. Furthermore, we identified 58 novel non-protein-coding genes, 38 new introns and condition-specific alternative splicing. Finally, our data suggest different patterns of adaptation to pH shift and nitrosative stress in C. glabrata, Candida albicans and S. cerevisiae and thus further underline a distinct evolution of virulence in yeast.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Candida glabrata is a common pathogen that causes invasive candidiasis. Among non-albicans Candida infections, C glabrata infections are associated with the highest fatality rates. Candida glabrata sensu stricto, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis have been identified and together form the C glabrata species complex. It is difficult to detect the two rare species by traditional laboratory methods. This study established a method for the rapid identification of members of the C glabrata species complex based on high-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis and evaluated its practical application. METHODS:The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used as target gene region to design specific primers. HRM analysis was performed with three subspecies of the C glabrata species complex and negative controls to test its specificity and sensitivity. To evaluate its practical application, the HRM technique was tested with clinical isolates, and the results were compared with the DNA sequencing results. RESULTS:Differences were detected among the melting profiles of the members of the C glabrata species complex. The negative controls were not amplified, indicating the high specificity of the method. The minimum detection limits of C glabrata sensu stricto, C nivariensis, and C bracarensis were approximately 1 × 101 copies/µL or less. The results of the HRM analysis of the clinical isolates were consistent with the DNA sequencing results. CONCLUSIONS:The HRM method is sensitive and can be used to rapidly identify the members of the C glabrata species complex. The method can allow early and targeted treatment of patients with invasive candidiasis.
Project description:In the frame of a multispecies project, Candida glabrata cells were treated with 1 mM sodium selenite. Cells were collected 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 minutes after the treatment and their transcriptomes were compared to those of mock-treated cultures. Four independent biological replicates were performed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES:An increase in antifungal resistant Candida strains has been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in resistance genes of azole-resistant, echinocandin-resistant or multi-resistant strains using next generation sequencing technology, which allows the analysis of multiple resistance mechanisms in a high throughput setting. METHODS:Forty clinical Candida isolates (16 C. albicans and 24 C. glabrata strains) with MICs for azoles and echinocandins above the clinical EUCAST breakpoint were examined. The genes ERG11, ERG3, TAC1 and GSC1 (FKS1) in C. albicans, as well as ERG11, CgPDR1, FKS1 and FKS2 in C. glabrata were sequenced. RESULTS:Fifty-four different missense mutations were identified, 13 of which have not been reported before. All nine echinocandin-resistant Candida isolates showed mutations in the hot spot (HS) regions of FKS1, FKS2 or GSC1. In ERG3 two homozygous premature stop codons were identified in two highly azole-resistant and moderately echinocandin-resistant C. albicans strains. Seven point mutations in ERG11 were determined in azole-resistant C. albicans whereas in azole-resistant C. glabrata, no ERG11 mutations were detected. In 10 out of 13 azole-resistant C. glabrata, 12 different potential gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factor CgPDR1 were verified, which are associated with an overexpression of the efflux pumps CDR1/2. CONCLUSION:This study showed that next generation sequencing allows the thorough investigation of a large number of isolates more cost efficient and faster than conventional Sanger sequencing. Targeting different resistance genes and a large sample size of highly resistant strains allows a better determination of the relevance of the different mutations, and to differentiate between causal mutations and polymorphisms.
Project description:The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata shows a concerning increase in drug resistance. Here, we present the analysis of two serial bloodstream isolates, obtained 12?days apart. Both isolates show pan-azole resistance and echinocandin resistance was acquired during the sampling interval. Genome sequencing identified nine nonsynonymous SNVs between the strains, including a S663P substitution in FKS2 and previously undescribed SNVs in MDE1 and FPR1, offering insight into how C. glabrata acquires drug resistance and adapts to a human host.
Project description:A recognized hotspot for mutations conferring reduced echinocandin susceptibility (RES) is residue S645 of Candida albicans Gsc1(Fks1). We report that the mutation F641Y is associated with RES in a C. albicans isolate. The analogous Fks2 residue is mutated F to V in a Candida glabrata RES isolate; the introduction of this mutation into susceptible C. glabrata confirmed its role in RES. Y641-equivalent Fks residues were identified in intrinsically RES Fusarium species and Candida guilliermondii.