Project description:In swine the upper reproductive tract undergoes early postnatal development, however little is known about the lower reproductive tract. Our objective was to measure cytology and proteome of vaginal swab samples taken on postnatal day (PND) 2 and 16 in gilts to determine if temporal changes occurred in cell and protein profiles during the first two weeks after birth. The posterior vagina was swabbed using a cytology brush on PND 0, 2 and 16 and slides were prepared. The proportion of anuclear and superficial cells increased and parabasal decreased (P?<?0.05) from PND 0 to 16. Proteins isolated from vaginal swabs taken on PND 2 and 16 from six gilts across three litters were measured using LC-MS/MS. Over 1500 proteins were identified, with 881 differentially expressed (P-adj?<?0.05) between PND 2 and 16. One-third of proteins upregulated between days were categorized as secreted, including lipocalins. Categories enriched by downregulated proteins included cell-cell adherens junction, translation and ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, and reflected increased cornification of stratified epithelium and thus mirrored changes in cytology. Changes in cytology and proteome over the first two weeks after birth support that the porcine vagina continues to develop postnatal.
Project description:In recent years, the roles of microRNAs playing in the regulation of influenza viruses replication caused researchers' much attenion. However, much work focused on the interactions between human, mice or chicken microRNAs with human or avian influenza viruses rather than the interactions of swine microRNAs and swine influenza viruses. To investigate the roles of swine microRNAs playing in the regulation of swine influenza A virus replication, the microRNA microarray was performed to identify which swine microRNAs were involved in swine H1N1/2009 influenza A virus infection. Overall design: Two pools of total RNA were extracted from the swine H1N1/2009 influenza A virus infected or uninfected NPTr cells and hybrided on Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 2.0 Array.
Project description:Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis using antiretroviral agents is a promising strategy for the prevention of sexual HIV transmission in women. Molecular transporters in the human vaginal tract may play a pivotal role in determining drug disposition and, consequently, pharmacodynamic outcomes in these efforts. Little is known, however, on the expression of these transporters in vaginal tissues, representing a critical knowledge gap. Our study analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome in 44 vaginal tissue samples from 6 reproductive-age women undergoing gynecologic surgeries. The genome-wide transcriptome in 44 vaginal tissue samples from 6 reproductive-age women (20-56 years old) undergoing gynecologic surgeries was measured.
Project description:In order to identify the swine genes which play roles in the regulation of swine influenza A virus replication, the gene microarray was performed to explore the systematical host response to the swine H1N1/2009 influenza A virus infection in porcine cells. Overall design: Two pools of total RNA were extracted from the swine H1N1/2009 influenza A virus infected or uninfected NPTr cells and hybrided on Affymetrix Porcine genome array Array.
Project description:Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common multifactorial disease in a heterogeneous population of women. Due to this heterogeneity, the underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of POP are still unclear. We sought to identify dysregulated pathways by comparing gene expression profiles of prolapsed and non- prolapsed anterior vaginal wall tissue within the same patient. Biopsies were collected from 12 premenopausal women undergoing prolapse surgery (cystocele POP-Q stage ≥ 2). A full thickness anterior vaginal wall sample was taken from the POP site during anterior colporrhaphy. An additional sample was taken from the non-prolapsed apex of the anterior vaginal cuff. Micro-array analysis was performed using whole genome GE 4x44K microarrays. Beside a significance analysis of micro-array (SAM), also a visual cluster analysis was performed. 12 women with POP: 12 biopsies anterior vaginal wall (POP site) versus 12 biopies precervical anterior vaginal wall ( non POP site)
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep, GAS) is a serious human pathogen with the ability to colonize mucosal surfaces such as the nasopharynx and vaginal tract, often leading to infections such as pharyngitis and vulvovaginitis. We present genome-wide RNASeq data showing the transcriptomic changes GAS undergoes during vaginal colonization. These data reveal that the regulon controlled by MtsR, a master metal regulator, is activated during vaginal colonization. This regulon includes two genes highly expressed during vaginal colonization, hupYZ. Here we show that HupY binds heme in vitro, affects intracellular concentrations of iron, and is essential for proper growth of GAS using hemoglobin or serum as the sole iron source. HupY is also important for murine vaginal colonization of both GAS and the related vaginal colonizer and pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep, GBS). These data provide essential information on the link between metal regulation and mucosal colonization in both GAS and GBS. Overall design: RNASeq data from WT GAS samples taken from liquid culture or the murine vaginal tract
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) can colonize the human vaginal tract leading to both superficial and serious infections in adults and neonates. To study bacterial colonization of the reproductive tract in a mammalian system, we employed a murine vaginal carriage model. Using RNASeq, the transcriptome of GBS growing in vivo during vaginal carriage was determined. Over one-quarter of the genes in GBS were found to be differentially regulated during in vivo colonization as compared to laboratory cultures. A two-component system (TCS) homologous to the staphylococcal virulence regulator SaeRS was identified as being up-regulated in vivo. One of the SaeRS targets, pbsP, a proposed GBS vaccine candidate, was shown to be important for colonization of the vaginal tract. A component of vaginal lavage fluid acted as a signal to turn on pbsP expression via SaeRS. These data demonstrate the ability to quantify RNA expression directly from the murine vaginal tract and identify novel genes involved in vaginal colonization by GBS. They also provide more information about the regulation of an important virulence and colonization factor of GBS, pbsP, by the TCS SaeRS. Overall design: RNASeq data from WT and mutant GBS samples taken from liquid culture or the murine vaginal tract
Project description:The hormonal contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), via incompletely understood mechanisms. Increased diversity in the vaginal microbiota modulates genital inflammation and is associated with increased HIV-1 acquisition. However, the effect of MPA on diversity of the vaginal microbiota is relatively unknown. In a cohort of female Kenyan sex workers, negative for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with Nugent scores <7 (N=58 of 370 screened), MPA correlated with significantly increased diversity of the vaginal microbiota as assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MPA was also significantly associated with decreased levels of estrogen in the plasma, and low vaginal glycogen and α-amylase, factors implicated in vaginal colonization by lactobacilli, bacteria that are believed to protect against STIs. In a humanized mouse model, MPA treatment was associated with low serum estrogen, low glycogen and enhanced HIV-1 susceptibility. The mechanism by which the MPA mediated changes in the vaginal microbiota may contribute to HIV-1 susceptibility in humans appears to be independent of inflammatory cytokines and/or activated T cells. Altogether, these results suggest MPA-induced hypo-estrogenism may alter key metabolic components that are necessary for vaginal colonization by certain bacterial species including lactobacilli, and allow for greater bacterial diversity in the vaginal microbiota. Overall design: Vaginal bacterial profiles of Kenyan sex workers were generated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform.