Project description:Rice tillering has an important influence on grain yield, and is promoted by nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Several genes controlling rice tillering, which are regulated by poor N supply, have been identified. However, the molecular mechanism associated with the regulation of tillering based on N supply is poorly understood. Here, we report that rice microRNA393 (OsmiR393) is involved in N-mediated tillering by decreasing auxin signal sensitivity in axillary buds. Expression analysis showed that N fertilizer causes up-regulation of OsmiR393, but down-regulation of two target genes (OsAFB2 and OsTB1). In situ expression analysis showed that OsmiR393 is highly expressed in the lateral axillary meristem. OsmiR393 overexpression mimicked N-mediated tillering in wild type Zhonghua 11 (ZH11). Mutation of OsMIR393 in ZH11 repressed N-promoted tillering, which simulated the effects of limited N, and this could not be restored by supplying N fertilizer. Western blot analysis showed that OsIAA6 was accumulated in both OsmiR393-overexpressing lines and N-treated wild type rice, but was reduced in the OsMIR393 mutant. Therefore, we deduced that N-induced OsmiR393 accumulation reduces the expression of OsTIR1 and OsAFB2, which alleviates sensitivity to auxin in the axillary buds and stabilizes OsIAA6, thereby promoting rice tillering.
Project description:Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) have been shown to recognize fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), which initiate innate immunity in various plant species. Notably, the connection between rice OsPGIPs and PGs in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS), remains unclear. Here, we show that OsPGIP1 was strongly induced after inoculating rice with the Xoc strain RS105. Furthermore, OsPGIP1-overexpressing (OV) and RNA interference (RNAi) rice lines increased and decreased, respectively, the resistance of rice to RS105, indicating that OsPGIP1 contributes to BLS resistance. Subsequently, we generated the unique PG mutant RS105?pg, the virulence of which is attenuated compared to that of RS105. Surprisingly, the lesion lengths caused by RS105?pg were similar to those caused by RS105 in the OV lines compared with wild-type ZH11 with reduced Xoc susceptibility. However, the lesion lengths caused by RS105?pg were still significantly shorter in the OV lines than in ZH11, implying that OsPGIP1-mediated BLS resistance could respond to other virulence factors in addition to PGs. To explore the OsPGIP1-mediated resistance, RNA-seq analysis were performed and showed that many plant cell wall-associated genes and several MYB transcription factor genes were specifically expressed or more highly induced in the OV lines compared to ZH11 postinoculation with RS105. Consistent with the expression of the differentially expressed genes, the OV plants accumulated a higher content of jasmonic acid (JA) than ZH11 postinoculation with RS105, suggesting that the OsPGIP1-mediated resistance to BLS is mainly dependent on the plant cell wall-associated immunity and the JA signaling pathway.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA from two-week old rice seedlings of jmj704 and wild-type (ZH11) plants to obtain the differntially expressed genes in jmj704 mutant. exzamination the differentially expressed genes between two-week old jmj704 and wild-type (ZH11) rice seedlings.
Project description:Rice includes 93 nitrate and peptide transporters family (NPF) members that facilitate the soil uptake and internal reallocation of nitrogen for growth and development. This study demonstrated that <i>OsNPF7.7</i> had two splicing variants, and altered expression of each variant could regulate shoot branching and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) in rice. The expression of both variants was down-regulated in the buds by increased nitrogen level in the <i>Japonica</i> rice variety ZH11. The expression level of long-variant <i>OsNPF7.7-1</i> was higher in panicles at reproductive stage, however, the expression level of short-variant <i>OsNPF7.7-2</i> was higher in buds and leaves at vegetative stage compared to each other in ZH11. OsNPF7.7-1 was localized in the plasma membrane, whereas OsNPF7.7-2 was localized in the vacuole membrane. Furthermore, the results indicated that the expression level of each variant for <i>OsNPF7.7</i> determined axillary bud outgrowth, and then influenced the rice tiller number. Overexpression of <i>OsNPF7.7-1</i> could promote nitrate influx and concentration in root, whereas overexpression of <i>OsNPF7.7-2</i> could improve ammonium influx and concentration in root. RNAi and <i>osnpf7.7</i> lines of <i>OsNPF7.7</i> showed an increased amount of amino acids in leaf sheaths, but a decreased amount in leaf blades, which affected nitrogen allocation and plant growth. The elevated expression of each variant for <i>OsNPF7.7</i> in ZH11 enhanced NUtE using certain fertilization regimes under paddy field conditions. Moreover, overexpression of each variant for <i>OsNPF7.7</i> in KY131 increased significantly the filled grain number per plant. Thus, increased each variant of <i>OsNPF7.7</i> has the potential to improve grain yield and NUtE in rice.
Project description:Jasmonates (JAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are phytohormones known play important roles in plant response and adaptation to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, wounding, and cold. JAZ (JASMONATE ZIM-domain) proteins have been reported to play negative roles in JA signaling. However, direct evidence is still lacking that JAZ proteins regulate drought resistance. In this study, OsJAZ1 was investigated for its role in drought resistance in rice. Expression of OsJAZ1 was strongly responsive to JA treatment, and it was slightly responsive to ABA, salicylic acid, and abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, and cold. The OsJAZ1-overexpression rice plants were more sensitive to drought stress treatment than the wild-type (WT) rice Zhonghua 11 (ZH11) at both the seedling and reproductive stages, while the jaz1 T-DNA insertion mutant plants showed increased drought tolerance compared to the WT plants. The OsJAZ1-overexpression plants were hyposensitive to MeJA and ABA, whereas the jaz1 mutant plants were hypersensitive to MeJA and ABA. In addition, there were significant differences in shoot and root length between the OsJAZ1 transgenic and WT plants under the MeJA and ABA treatments. A subcellular localization assay indicated that OsJAZ1 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Transcriptome profiling analysis by RNA-seq revealed that the expression levels of many genes in the ABA and JA signaling pathways exhibited significant differences between the OsJAZ1-overexpression plants and WT ZH11 under drought stress treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the expression profiles of some of the differentially expressed genes, including OsNCED4, OsLEA3, RAB21, OsbHLH006, OsbHLH148, OsDREB1A, OsDREB1B, SNAC1, and OsCCD1. These results together suggest that OsJAZ1 plays a role in regulating the drought resistance of rice partially via the ABA and JA pathways.
Project description:In Hawaii, a rapidly-evolving mutation in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus silences males by interfering with the development of sound-producing structures on their forewings. The mutation is called flatwing (fw), and it persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically-orienting parasitoid. We examined gene expression differences between wild-type and mutant crickets, focusing on juvenile wing buds. We profiled mRNA expression levels using RNA-seq, and characterized the wing bud proteome using quantitative mass spectrometry.
Project description:Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3-24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields. Conditional knockout mice lacking Gli3 in the posterior tongue (Gli3CKO) had larger taste buds containing more taste cells than did control wild-type (Gli3WT) mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, Gli3CKO mice had more Lgr5+ and Tas1r3+ cells, but fewer type III cells. Similar changes were observed ex vivo in Gli3CKO taste organoids cultured from Lgr5+ taste stem cells. Further, the expression of several taste marker and Gli3 target genes was altered in Gli3CKO mice and/or organoids. Mirroring these changes, Gli3CKO mice had increased lick responses to sweet and umami stimuli, decreased lick responses to bitter and sour taste stimuli, and increased glossopharyngeal taste nerve responses to sweet and bitter compounds. Our results indicate that Gli3 is a suppressor of stem cell proliferation that affects the number and function of mature taste cells, especially Tas1r3+ cells, in adult posterior tongue. Our findings shed light on the role of the Shh pathway in adult taste cell regeneration and may help devise strategies for treating taste distortions from chemotherapy and aging.
Project description:Heading date is an important agronomic trait of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and is regulated by numerous genes, some of which exhibit functional divergence in a genetic background-dependent manner. Here, we identified a late heading date 7 (lhd7) mutant that flowered later than wild-type Zhonghua 11 (ZH11) under natural long-day (NLD) conditions. Map-based cloning facilitated by the MutMap strategy revealed that LHD7 was on the same locus as OsPRR37 but exhibited a novel function as a promoter of heading date. A single-nucleotide mutation of G-to-A in the coding region caused a substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at site 159 within the pseudo-receiver (PR) domain of OsPRR37. Transcriptional analysis revealed that OsPRR37 suppressed Ghd7 expression in both ZH11 background under NLD conditions and the Zhenshan 97 background under natural short-day conditions. Consistently, the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 was enhanced by OsPRR37 in the ZH11 background. Genetic analysis indicated that the promotion of heading date and reduction in grain yield by OsPRR37 were partially dependent on Ghd7. Further investigation showed that the alternative function of OsPRR37 required an intact Ghd7-related regulatory pathway involving not only its upstream regulators OsGI and PhyB but also its interacting partner Hd1. Our study revealed the distinct role of OsPRR37 in the ZH11 background, which provides a more comprehensive understanding of OsPRR37 function and enriches the theoretical bases for improvement of rice heading date in the future.
Project description:In Hawaii, a rapidly-evolving mutation in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus silences males by interfering with the development of sound-producing structures on their forewings. The mutation is called flatwing (fw), and it persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically-orienting parasitoid. We examined gene expression differences between wild-type and mutant crickets, focusing on juvenile wing buds. We profiled mRNA expression levels using RNA-seq, and characterized the wing bud proteome using quantitative mass spectrometry. Accessing protein expression profiles under the same experimental conditions enabled us to test correspondence between the two ‘omic levels.
Project description:Animal nutrition and toxin deterrence rely on the ability to taste, which occurs through columnar taste cells clustered within taste buds. Taste buds in mammals are located within specialized tissues, called papillae. However, taste buds in fish and amphibians, such as axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum), are not housed in papillae, rather they are embedded within the pharyngeal epithelium. This simplified tissue level organization, along with the ability of cultured oropharyngeal explants from early embryos to produce taste buds on the same time-line as embryos, make the axolotl an excellent model to identify molecules specifically involved in taste bud cell differentiation. We performed de novo transcriptomic analysis on RNA sequences from three different stages of oropharyngeal explants: stages 37/38, 39, and 41. RNA-seq data from 17 total samples representing these stages were pooled to generate a de novo assembly of the transcriptome using a Trinity pipeline. From 27.9Gb of raw sequences, we identified 21,244 transcripts. To our knowledge, this is the first published assembly of axolotl oropharyngeal endoderm explants. This data and transcriptome assembly relate to the research article "Transcriptome Analysis of Axolotl Oropharyngeal Explants During Taste Bud Differentiation Stages" (Kohli et al. 2020). This RNA-seq data and transcriptome assembly provide information on genes expressed in the oropharyngeal endoderm and will be valuable in the identification of taste bud development genes.