Project description:INTRODUCTION:Enterococcus pallens is one of the four yellow-pigmented members of the genus Enterococcus. To date, a single report of E. pallens isolated from a human sample has been published. CASE PRESENTATION:We report three cases of E. pallens spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis that all occurred in Quebec, Canada. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed the presence of E. pallens in culture. Identification was made by classical biochemical testing and MALDI-TOF MS, as well as 16S rRNA and elongation factor (tuf) gene sequencing. Two of the three patients recovered after antimicrobial treatment. CONCLUSION:This report identifies E. pallens as a novel human pathogen that appears to possess particular but as-yet unidentified virulence factors that favour the development of peritoneal fluid infections, as previously reported for other Enterococcus species. Clinical microbiologist should be aware of this micro-organism which can be identified by phenotypic and molecular methods.
Project description:The Culex pipiens complex in Asia includes a temperate subspecies, Culex pipiens pallens, of uncertain taxonomic status. The shape of the male genitalia suggests it is a hybrid between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. We studied populations of Cx. p. pallens in Japan, Korea, and China and compared them to local populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. p. pipiens. We examined variation in a nuclear intron in the acetylcholinesterase-2 gene [ACE] and eight microsatellite loci. We found a distinct microsatellite signature for Cx. p. pallens indicating restricted gene flow between Eastern and Western populations of Cx. pipiens, supporting the existence of two subspecies. Furthermore, a multilocus genotype analysis revealed current hybridization between Cx. p. pallens and Cx. quinquefasciatus in southern Japan, Republic of Korea, and China but not in Hokkaido, in northern Japan. Surprisingly, however, we found that the sex-linked ACE locus in chromosome I has introgressed asymmetrically through the males such that all male Cx. p. pallens have a copy of the Cx. quinquefasciatus ACE locus. This result highlights some of the potential consequences of hybridization between local and introduced species to disease transmission worldwide.
Project description:Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens pallens are the major vectors of the Japanese encephalitis virus and Wuchereria bancrofti, the causative agent of filariasis. The knowledge of mitochondrial genomes has been widely useful for the studies on molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics.In this study, we sequenced and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens, and performed a comparative analysis including four known mt genomes of species of the subgenus Culex (Culex). The phylogenetic relationships of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. p. pallens and four known Culex mt genome sequences were reconstructed by maximum likelihood based on concatenated protein-coding gene sequences.Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens mt genomes are 14,844 bp and 15,617 bp long, both consists of 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 CR (not sequenced for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus). The initiation and termination codons of PCGs are ATN and TAA, respectively, except for COI starting with TCG, and COI and COII terminated with T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf secondary structures except for trnS ((AGN)) that is lacking the DHU stem. 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA secondary structures were drawn for the first time for mosquito mt genomes. The control region of Cx. p. pallens mt genome is 747 bp long and with four tandem repeat structures. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the mt genome of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was significantly separated from the remaining five mt genomes of Culex spp. Culex p. pipiens, Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus formed a monophyletic clade with Cx. p. quinquefasciatus linked in the middle of the clade, and Cx. p. pallens should have the same taxonomic level as Culex p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus.The mt genomes of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens share the same gene composition and order with those of two other Culex species. Culex p. pallens of the Pipiens complex should have the same taxonomic level as Culex p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus investigated. We enriched the Culex mt genome data and provided a reference basis for further Culex mt genome sequencing and analyses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) are the most important natural enemies and predators of various agricultural pests. Understanding the sophisticated olfactory system in insect antennae is crucial for studying the physiological bases of olfaction and also could lead to effective applications of C. pallens in integrated pest management. However no transcriptome information is available for Neuroptera, and sequence data for C. pallens are scarce, so obtaining more sequence data is a priority for researchers on this species.<h4>Results</h4>To facilitate identifying sets of genes involved in olfaction, a normalized transcriptome of C. pallens was sequenced. A total of 104,603 contigs were obtained and assembled into 10,662 clusters and 39,734 singletons; 20,524 were annotated based on BLASTX analyses. A large number of candidate chemosensory genes were identified, including 14 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 22 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 16 ionotropic receptors, 14 odorant receptors, and genes potentially involved in olfactory modulation. To better understand the OBPs, CSPs and cytochrome P450s, phylogenetic trees were constructed. In addition, 10 digital gene expression libraries of different tissues were constructed and gene expression profiles were compared among different tissues in males and females.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results provide a basis for exploring the mechanisms of chemoreception in C. pallens, as well as other insects. The evolutionary analyses in our study provide new insights into the differentiation and evolution of insect OBPs and CSPs. Our study provided large-scale sequence information for further studies in C. pallens.
Project description:The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Culex quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of C. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant C. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant C. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in C. pipiens pallens.
Project description:Continuous and excessive application of insecticides has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in several mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. Previous studies in our laboratory found that arrestin gene expression was higher in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain than in the deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. Similarly, other studies reported that arrestin was highly expressed in permethrin-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-resistant Drosophila melanogaster.Full-length cDNAs of an arrestin gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The mRNA levels of the arrestin gene in the whole life cycle of DR and DS strains of Cx. pipiens pallens were investigated via quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the relationship between arrestin and deltamethrin (DM) resistance were identified using genetic overexpression strategies and arrestin RNAi in mosquito cells. Cell viability was analyzed with cholecystokinin octapeptide after DM treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 6A1 (CYP6A1) and opsin in the transfected cells and controls were analyzed.Complete arrestin gene sequence was cloned and expressed throughout the life cycle of Cx. pipiens pallens. Moreover, arrestin was significantly upregulated in the DR strain, compared with that in the DS strain at the egg, pupae, and adult stages. Arrestin overexpression comparably increased the mosquito cell viability, whereas arrestin knockdown by siRNA decreased mosquito cell viability with deltamethrin (DM) treatment. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of CYP6A1 and opsin were upregulated in mosquito cells transfected with arrestin and downregulated in mosquito cells with arrestin knockdown.This study presented the first evidence that arrestin might be associated with insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
Project description:Malaria infection in mosquitoes is traditionally detected by microscopic examination for Plasmodium oocysts and sporozoites. Although PCR is now widely used, the presence of parasite DNA in a mosquito does not prove that sporogony is achieved. Thus, detection of sporozoites by microscopy is still required to definitively identify vector mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to confirm sporogony of avian Plasmodium spp. in Culex pipiens pallens and C. inatomii caught from the wild.Mosquitoes collected at two sites in Japan were dissected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium oocysts and sporozoites. DNA was extracted from the midgut and salivary gland of infected mosquitoes, and the infecting Plasmodium species was identified by sequencing 478 bp of cytochrome b. Oocysts, or both oocysts and sporozoites, were found in 3.94 and 0.46% of C. p. pallens and C. inatomii, respectively. Four (CXPIP09, GRW4, GRW11 and SGS1) and three cytochrome b lineages (CXINA01, CXINA02 and CXQUI01) were confirmed to achieve sporogony in C. p. pallens and C. inatomii, respectively. One mosquito each of C. p. pallens and C. inatomii was co-infected with two different Plasmodium lineages.These findings demonstrate that C. p. pallens and C. inatomii are natural vectors of four and three lineages of avian Plasmodium spp., respectively. The data indicate that a systematic procedure combining microscopy and PCR is a feasible and reliable approach to identify natural vectors of wildlife malaria.
Project description:To reveal overwintering dormancy (diapause) mechanisms of Culex pipiens pallens (L.), global protein expression differences at three separate time points represent nondiapause, diapause preparation and overwintering diapause phases of Cx. pipiens pallens were compared using iTRAQ. Cx. pipiens pallens females accumulate more lipid droplets during diapause preparation and overwintering diapause maintenance than during the nondiapause phase. A total of 1030 proteins were identified, among which 1020 were quantified and compared. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Domain and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses revealed key groups of proteins, pathways and domains differentially regulated during diapause preparation and overwintering diapause maintenance phases in this mosquito, including major shifts in energy production and conversion, fatty acid metabolism, the citrate (TCA) cycle, and the cytoskeletal reorganization pathway. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular bases of diapause in mosquitoes and corroborate previously reported diapause-associated features in invertebrates. More interestingly, the phototransduction pathway exists in Cx. pipiens pallens, in particular, actin, rather than other proteins, appears to have substantial role in diapause regulation. In addition, the differential changes in calmodulin protein expression in each stage implicate its important regulatory role of the Cx. pipiens pallens biological clock. Finally, 24 proteins were selected for verification of differential expression using a parallel reaction monitoring strategy. The findings of this study provide a unique opportunity to explore the molecular modifications underlying diapause in mosquitoes and might therefore enable the future design and development of novel genetic tools for improving management strategies in mosquitoes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance jeopardizes the control of mosquito populations and mosquito-borne disease control, which creates a major public health concern. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified one protein segment with high sequence homology to part of Aedes aegypti iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP). METHOD: RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) were used to clone a cDNA encoding full length IRE-BP 1. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the transcriptional level changes in the Cr-IRE strain Aedes aegypti compared to the susceptible strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. The expression profile of the gene was established in the mosquito life cycle. Methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) was used to observe the cypermethrin resistance changes in C6/36 cells containing the stably transfected IRE-BP 1 gene of Cx. pipiens pallens. RESULTS: The complete sequence of iron responsive element binding protein 1 (IRE-BP 1) has been cloned from the cypermethrin-resistant strain of Culex pipiens pallens (Cr-IRE strain). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the IRE-BP 1 transcription level was 6.7 times higher in the Cr-IRE strain than in the susceptible strain of 4th instar larvae. The IRE-BP 1 expression was also found to be consistently higher throughout the life cycle of the Cr-IRE strain. A protein of predicted size 109.4 kDa has been detected by Western blotting in IRE-BP 1-transfected mosquito C6/36 cells. These IRE-BP 1-transfected cells also showed enhanced cypermethrin resistance compared to null-transfected or plasmid vector-transfected cells as determined by 3H-TdR incorporation. CONCLUSION: IRE-BP 1 is expressed at higher levels in the Cr-IRE strain, and may confer some insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies.