Project description:Promoter methylation is able to induce downregulation of gene expression. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine(Aza), methytransferase inhibitor, induce CpG demethylation. Here, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine(Aza) is treated in a human breast cancer cell, MCF7, for detection of gene expression change. To analyze gene expression change by aza, control RNA isolated from MCF-7 was compared with RNA isolated from MCF-7 treated with 5uM and 10uM aza.
Project description:Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.
Project description:H11/HspB8 is a functionally distinct small heat shock protein. It causes growth arrest in melanocytes, associated with the inhibition of Cyclin E/Cdk2 and ?-catenin phosphorylation at the transcriptional activity site Ser(552) and is silenced through DNA methylation in 27/35 (77%) melanoma tissues/early cultures. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-C) induces melanoma cell death correlated with the levels of H11/HspB8 DNA methylation (p < .001). In line with low/moderate H11/HspB8 methylation, PI3-K inhibition increases Aza-C-induced cell death. Aza-C inhibits the growth of melanoma xenografts related to the levels of H11/HspB8 methylation, and a nonmethylated/non-TAK1 binding H11/HspB8 mutant confers Aza-C resistance. H11/HspB8 is a potential molecular marker for demethylation therapies.
Project description:The puropose of this experiment was to identify gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells. The gene expression profiles of untreated Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells were compared to the gene expression profiles of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells that were treated for 5 passages with a low dose of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (0.1uM). Overall design: Five chip study. For these experiments, microarray was carried out on untreated (control) Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells (3 biological replicates), and microarray was also carried out on Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (2 biological replicates).
Project description:Sialyl Lewis X is a tumor-associated antigen frequently found in the advanced cancers. However, the mechanism for the production of this cancer antigen is not entirely clear. The objective of this study is to examine whether epigenetics is involved in the regulation of the formation of this antigen. We observed an increase of sialyl Lewis X in HCT15 cells, a colon cancer cell line, treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. This treatment enhanced the expression of ?-galactoside:?2,3-sialyltransferase 6 gene and sialyl Lewis X on MUC1, and the adherence of these cells to E-selectin under dynamic flow conditions. In addition, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment inhibited methylation of ?-galactoside:?2,3-sialyltransferase 6 gene and siRNA knockdown of this gene drastically reduced sialyl Lewis X without affecting MUC1 expression. We conclude that 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment increases sialyl Lewis X on MUC1 by stimulating the ?-galactoside:?2,3-sialyltransferase 6 gene via inhibition of DNA methylation. Increased sialyl Lewis X by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine raises a concern about the safety of this chemotherapeutic drug. In addition, ?-galactoside:?2,3-sialyltransferase 6 gene may be a potential therapeutic target for suppressing tumorigenicity of colon cancer.
Project description:5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine are clinically used to treat patients with blood neoplasia. Their antileukemic property is mediated by the trapping and the subsequent degradation of a family of proteins, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) leading to DNA demethylation, tumor suppressor gene re-expression and DNA damage. Here we studied the respective role of each DNMT in the human leukemia KG1 cell line using a RNA interference approach. In addition we addressed the role of DNA damage formation in DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our data show that DNMT1 is the main DNMT involved in DNA methylation maintenance in KG1 cells and in mediating DNA damage formation upon exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Moreover, KG1 cells express the DNMT1 protein at a level above the one required to ensure DNA methylation maintenance, and we identified a threshold for DNMT1 depletion that needs to be exceeded to achieve DNA demethylation. Most interestingly, by combining DNMT1 siRNA and treatment with low dose of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, it is possible to uncouple DNA damage formation from DNA demethylation. This work strongly suggests that a direct pharmacological inhibition of DNMT1, unlike the use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, should lead to tumor suppressor gene hypomethylation and re-expression without inducing major DNA damage in leukemia.
Project description:The epigenetic regulation of transcription factor genes is critical for T cell lineage specification. A specific methylation pattern within a conserved region of the lineage specifying transcription factor gene FOXP3, the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), is restricted to regulatory T (Treg) cells and required for stable expression of FOXP3 and suppressive function. We analyzed the impact of hypomethylating agents 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on human CD4+CD25- T for generating Treg cell specific DNA methylation pattern within FOXP3-TSDR and inducing functional Treg cells. Gene expression, including lineage specifying transcription factors of the major T cell lineages and their leading cytokines, functional properties and global transcriptome changes were analyzed. 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine induced FOXP3-TSDR methylation and expression of Treg cell specific genes FOXP3 and LRRC32. Proliferation of 5-Aza-2Â´deoxycytidine treated cells was reduced, but they did not show suppressive function. Hypomethylation was not restricted to FOXP3-TSDR and expression of master transcription factors and leading cytokines of Th1 and Th17 cells were induced. EGCG induced global DNA hypomethylation to a lower degree than 5-Aza-2Â´deoxycitidine, but no relevant hypomethylation within FOXP3-TSDR or expression of Treg cell specific genes. Both DNMT inhibitors did not induce full functional human Treg cells. Although 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine treated cells phenotypically appeared to be Treg cells, they did not suppress proliferation of responder cells, which is an essential capability to be used in Treg cell transfer therapy. In this study we analyze the potency of the two hypomethylating agents 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for in vitro induction of functional Treg cell cells through generation of a specific methylation pattern within FOXP3-TSDR. We analyzed the expression of Treg cell specific genes and for their functional properties from CD4+CD25- T cells. 5-Aza-dC is a derivative of 5-Azacytidine. Both substances are inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and used for therapy of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia. In these patients, 5-Azacytidine has been reported to augment regulatory T cell expansion in blood. EGCG is the most abundant catechin of green tea and has been reported to have cardio protective, anti-cancer, anti-infective properties and protective effects on autoimmune diseases. EGCG has also been described as a potent inhibitor of DNMTs and to induce Foxp3 in Jurkat T cell line.
Project description:Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of nonseminoma testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) and share remarkable similarities to human embryonic stem (ES) cells. In prior work we found that EC cells are hypersensitive to low nanomolar doses of 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza) and that this hypersensitivity partially depended on unusually high levels of the DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B. We show here that low-dose 5-aza treatment results in DNA damage and induction of p53 in NT2/D1 cells. In addition, low-dose 5-aza results in global and gene specific promoter DNA hypomethylation. Low-dose 5-aza induces a p53 transcriptional signature distinct from that induced with cisplatin in NT2/D1 cells and also uniquely downregulates genes associated with pluripotency including NANOG, SOX2, GDF3 and Myc target genes. Changes in the p53 and pluripotency signatures with 5-aza were to a large extent dependent on high levels of DNMT3B. In contrast to the majority of p53 target genes upregulated by 5-aza that did not show DNA hypomethylation, several other genes induced with 5-aza had corresponding decreases in promoter methylation. These genes include RIN1, SOX15, GPER, and TLR4 and are novel candidate tumors suppressors in TGCTs. Our studies suggest that the hypersensitivity of NT2/D1 cells to low-dose 5-aza is multifactorial and involves the combined activation of p53 targets, repression of pluripotency genes, and activation of genes repressed by DNA methylation. Low-dose 5-aza therapy may be a general strategy to treat those tumors that are sustained by cells with embryonic stem-like properties. Total RNA obtained from wild-type NT2/D1 cells treated with vehicle (control) or 10 nM 5-aza deoxycytidine for 1 day (1day) or 10 nM 5-aza deoxycytidine for 3 days (3day) or treated with 0.5 uM cisplatin (cispl) for 6 hours followed by a 24 hour recovery before harvest. Four groups in biological triplicate for total of 12 hybridizations on Illumina HT-12v4 beadarray.
Project description:The expression of cold-induced genes is critical for plants to survive under freezing stress. However, the underlying mechanisms for the decision of when, where, and which genes to express are unclear when a plant meets a sudden temperature drop. Previous studies have demonstrated epigenetics to play a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plant responses to environmental stress. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are the two most important epigenetic modifications. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of inhibiting DNA methylation and histone deacetylation on gene expression, and to explore the potential role of epigenetics in plant responses to cold stress. The results revealed that histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A) and DNA methylation inhibitors (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytosine) treatment enhanced cold tolerance. DNA microarray analysis and the gene ontology method revealed 76 cold-induced differently expressed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that were treated to 0°C for 24 h following Trichostatin A and 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine. Furthermore, analyses of metabolic pathways and transcription factors of 3305 differentially expressed genes were performed. Each four metabolic pathways were significantly affected (p < 0.01) by Trichostatin A and 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine. Finally, 10 genes were randomly selected and verified via qPCR analysis. Our study indicated that Trichostatin A and 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine can improve the plant cold resistance and influence the expression of the cold-induced gene in A. thaliana. This result will advance our understanding of plant freezing responses and may provide a helpful strategy for cold tolerance improvement in crops.