ABSTRACT: Leguminosa pulse como uma estrategia inovadora para o desenvolvimento do Agro fluminense (Projeto E-26/202.546/2019) - ("Pulse" leguminous as an innovative strategy for the development of agriculture in Rio de Janeiro state)
Project description:Two code files and one dataset related to Olympic Twitter activity are the foundation for this article. Through Twitter's Spritzer streaming API (Application Programming Interface), we collected over 430 million tweets from May 12th, 2016 to September 12th, 2016 windowing the Rio de Janeiro Olympics and Paralympics. We cleaned and filtered these tweets to contain Olympic-related content. We then analyzed the raw data of 21,218,652 tweets including location data, language, and tweet content to distill the sentiment and emotions of Twitter users pertaining to the Olympic Games Kassens-Noor E. et al., 2019. We generalized the original data set to comply with the Twitter's Terms of Service and Developer agreement, 2018. We present the modified dataset and accompanying code files in this article to suggest using both for further analysis on sentiment and emotions related to the Rio de Janeiro Olympics and for comparative research on imagery and perceptions of other Olympic Games.
Project description:The emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has raised serious concerns due to the virus' rapid dissemination into new geographic areas and the clinical features associated with infection. To better understand CHIKV dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, we generated 11 near-complete genomes by means of real-time portable nanopore sequencing of virus isolates obtained directly from clinical samples. To better understand CHIKV dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, we generated 11 near-complete genomes by means of real-time portable nanopore sequencing of virus isolates obtained directly from clinical samples. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicated the circulation of the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) lineage in Rio de Janeiro. Time-measured phylogenetic analysis combined with CHIKV notified case numbers revealed the ECSA lineage was introduced in Rio de Janeiro around June 2015 (95% Bayesian credible interval: May to July 2015) indicating the virus was circulating unnoticed for 5 months before the first reports of CHIKV autochthonous transmissions in Rio de Janeiro, in November 2015. These findings reinforce that continued genomic surveillance strategies are needed to assist in the monitoring and understanding of arbovirus epidemics, which might help to attenuate public health impact of infectious diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR?=?0.55; p?=?0.027), depression (OR?=?0.6; p?=?0.006) generalized anxiety (OR?=?0.59; p?=?0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR?=?0.62; p?=?0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR?=?5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR?=?1.7; p?=?0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors might guide the implementation of interventions to improve mental health and quality of life in LMIC urban centers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro.<h4>Methods</h4>The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26?±?1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70?±?10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population-ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti.
Project description:Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous infection caused by fungi from the genus <i>Sporothrix</i>. It is transmitted by inoculation of infective particles found in plant-contaminated material or diseased animals, characterizing the classic sapronotic and emerging zoonotic transmission, respectively. Since 1998, southeastern Brazil has experienced a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic caused by <i>S. brasiliensis</i>, centred in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Our observation of feline sporotrichosis cases in Brasília (Midwestern Brazil), around 900?km away from Rio de Janeiro, led us to question whether the epidemic caused by <i>S. brasiliensis</i> has spread from the epicentre in Rio de Janeiro, emerged independently in the two locations, or if the disease has been present and unrecognized in Midwestern Brazil. A retrospective analysis of 91 human and 4 animal cases from Brasília, ranging from 1993 to 2018, suggests the occurrence of both sapronotic and zoonotic transmission. Molecular typing of the calmodulin locus identified <i>S. schenckii</i> as the agent in two animals and all seven human patients from which we were able to recover clinical isolates. In two other animals, the disease was caused by <i>S. brasiliensis</i>. Whole-genome sequence typing of seven <i>Sporothrix</i> spp. strains from Brasília and Rio de Janeiro suggests that <i>S. brasiliensis</i> isolates from Brasília are genetically distinct from those obtained at the epicentre of the outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, both in phylogenomic and population genomic analyses. The two <i>S. brasiliensis</i> populations seem to have separated between 2.2 and 3.1 million years ago, indicating independent outbreaks or that the zoonotic <i>S. brasiliensis</i> outbreak might have started earlier and be more widespread in South America than previously recognized.
Project description:The Asian/American genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) has been introduced in Brazil through the state of Rio de Janeiro around 1990, and since then it has been spreading and evolving, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics throughout the country that cause a major public health problem. Of particular interest has been the epidemic of 2008, whose highest impact was evidenced in the state of Rio de Janeiro, with a higher number of severe cases and mortality rate, compared to previous outbreaks. Interestingly, no circulation of DENV-2 was witnessed in this region during the preceding 9-year period. By early 2010, phylogenetic analysis of the 2008 epidemic strain revealed that the outbreak was caused by a new viral lineage of the Asian/American genotype, which was pointed as responsible for the outbreak severity as well. The same scenario is repeating in 2019 in this state; however, only a few cases have been detected yet. To provide information that helps to the understanding of DENV-2 dynamics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and thereafter contribute to public health control and prevention actions, we employed phylogenetic studies combined with temporal and dynamics geographical features to determine the origin of the current viral strain. To this effect, we analyzed a region of 1626 nucleotides entailing the Envelope/NS1 viral genes. Our study reveals that the current strain belongs to the same lineage that caused the 2008 outbreak, however, it is phylogenetically distant from any Brazilian strain identified so far. Indeed, it seemed to be originated in Puerto Rico around 2002 and has been introduced into the state in late 2018. Taking into account that no DENV-2 case was reported over the last decade in the state (representing a whole susceptible children generation), and the fact that a new viral strain may be causing current dengue infections, these results will be influential in strengthening dengue surveillance and disease control, mitigating the potential epidemiological consequences of virus spread.
Project description:Outbreaks caused by Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses can spread rapidly in immunologically naïve populations. By analysing 92 newly generated viral genome sequences from blood donors and recipients, we assess the dynamics of dengue virus serotype 4 during the 2012 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the outbreak was caused by genotype II, although two isolates of genotype I were also detected for the first time in Rio de Janeiro. Evolutionary analysis and modelling estimates are congruent, indicating a reproduction number above 1 between January and June, and at least two thirds of infections being unnoticed. Modelling analysis suggests that viral transmission started in early January, which is consistent with multiple introductions, most likely from the northern states of Brazil, and with an increase in within-country air travel to Rio de Janeiro. The combination of genetic and epidemiological data from blood donor banks may be useful to anticipate epidemic spread of arboviruses.
Project description:A synopsis for the genus Commelina in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is presented here, including a new species, ten new synonyms, five designated lectotypes, two designated epitypes and an excluded name. Commelina huntii, a new species, is remarkable due to the combination of rusty to rusty-brown hairs at the margin of its leaf-sheaths, connate spathes, white flowers with auriculate medial petal, ovaries with sparse black papillae and dehiscent fruits. Additionally, we provide an identification key, illustrations, and conservation status for the species of Commelina recorded in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Project description:Background:Several mutations in voltage gated sodium channel (NaV) have been identified in Aedes aegypti populations worldwide. However, only few are related to knockdown resistance to pyrethroids, most of which with variations in the 1016 and 1534 NaV sites. In Brazil, at least two NaV alleles are known: NaVR1, with a substitution in the 1534 (1016 Val+ + 1534 Ile kdr ) and NaVR2, with substitutions in both 1016 and sites (1016Ilekdr + 1534Cys kdr ). There is also the duplication in the NaV gene, with one copy carrying the substitution Ile1011Met, although its effects on pyrethroid resistance remain to be clarified. Our goals in this study were (1) to determine the role of each kdr NaV allele and the duplication on pyrethroid resistance and (2) to screen the frequency of the kdr alleles in 27 several natural Ae. aegypti populations from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Methods:Pyrethroid resistance was evaluated by a knockdown time (KdT) assay, an adaptation of the WHO test tubes with paper impregnated with deltamethrin. We used laboratory-selected Ae. aegypti lineages: R1R1 and R2R2 (homozygous for the kdr NaVR1 and NaVR2 alleles, respectively), Dup (with duplication in the NaV gene), Rockefeller (the susceptibility reference control), and F1 hybrids among them. Genotyping of both 1016 and 1534 NaV sites was performed in 811 Ae. aegypti sampled from 27 localities from Rio de Janeiro (17), Niterói (6) and Nova Iguaçu (4) cities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with a TaqMan real time PCR approach. Results:The laboratory lineages R1R1, R2R2, and R1R2 were the only ones that needed more than 60 minutes to knock down all the insects exposed to the pyrethroid, being the KdT R2R2 > R1R2 > R1R1, corroborating the recessive nature of the kdr mutations. Frequency of kdr alleles NaVR1 and NaVR2 in field-caught mosquitoes varied from 0 to 52% and 43 to 86%, respectively, evidencing high levels of "resistant genotypes" (R1R1, R1R2, and R2R2), which together summed 60 to 100% in Ae. aegypti populations from Rio de Janeiro. Conclusions:The NaVR1 and NaVR2 kdr alleles confer resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin in homozygotes and R1R2 heterozygotes, being the R2R2 most resistant genotype. The allele containing duplication in the NaV gene, with a mutation in the 1011 site, did not confer resistance under the tested conditions. The frequencies of the "resistant genotypes" are elevated in Ae. aegypti natural populations from Rio de Janeiro.