Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level in motile strain of Sphingomonas. sp A1 All flagellar genes in motile strain of Sphingomonas. sp A1 are highly transcribed. A two chip study using total RNA recovered from wild-type and motile strains of Sphingomonas. sp A1 grown in 0.5% alginate medium.
Project description:Solar panel surfaces, although subjected to a range of extreme environmental conditions, are inhabited by a diverse microbial community adapted to solar radiation, desiccation and temperature fluctuations. This is the first time a new bacterial species has been isolated from this environment. Strain R4DWNT belongs to the genus Sphingomonas and was isolated from a solar panel surface in Boston, MA, USA. Strain R4DWNT is a Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria that tested positive for oxidase and catalase and forms round-shaped, shiny and orange-coloured colonies. It is mesophilic, neutrophilic and non-halophilic, and presents a more stenotrophic metabolism than its closest neighbours. The major fatty acids in this strain are C18:1?7c/C18:1?6c, C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c?, C14:0 2OH and C16:0. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the closest type strains to R4DWNT are Sphingomonas fennica, Sphingomonas formosensis, Sphingomonas prati, Sphingomonas montana and Sphingomonas oleivorans with 96.3, 96.1, 96.0, 95.9 and 95.7 % pairwise similarity, respectively. The genomic G+C content of R4DWNT is 67.9 mol%. Based on these characteristics, strain R4DWNT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas for which the name Sphingomonas solaris sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain R4DWNT (=CECT 9811T=LMG 31344T).
Project description:There is an ongoing debate about the clinical significance of Sphingomonas paucimobilis as a virulent bacterial pathogen. In the present study, we investigated the presence of different virulence factors and genes in Sphingomonas bacteria. We utilized phylogenetic, comparative genomics and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the potentiality of Sphingomonas bacteria as virulent pathogenic bacteria. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) phylogenetic tree showed that the closest bacterial taxon to Sphingomonas is Brucella with a bootstrap value of 87 followed by Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, and then Legionella. Sphingomonas shared no virulence factors with Helicobacter or Campylobacter, despite their close phylogenic relationship. In spite of the phylogenetic divergence between Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas, they shared many major virulence factors, such as adherence, antiphagocytosis, iron uptake, proteases, and quorum sensing. In conclusion, Sphingomonas spp. contains several major virulence factors resembling Pseudomonas sp., Legionella sp., Brucella sp., and Bordetella sp. virulence factors. Similarity of virulence factors did not match phylogenetic relationships. These findings suggest horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors rather than sharing a common pathogenic ancestor. Sphingomonas spp. is potential virulent bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Members of the Sphingomonas genus are often isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils due to their unique abilities to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are important for in situ bioremediation. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach using streptomycin-containing medium and Sphingomonas-specific PCR was developed to isolate and identify culturable Sphingomonas strains present in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Shenfu wastewater irrigation zone. Of the 15 soil samples examined, 12 soils yielded yellow streptomycin-resistant colonies. The largest number of yellow colony-forming units (CFUs) could reach 10(5)CFUsg(-1)soil. The number of yellow CFUs had a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with the ratio of PAHs to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), indicating that Sphingomonas may play a key role in degrading the PAH fraction of the petroleum contaminants at this site. Sixty yellow colonies were selected randomly and analyzed by colony PCR using Sphingomonas-specific primers, out of which 48 isolates had PCR-positive signals. The 48 positive amplicons generated 8 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, and 7 out of 8 phylotypes were identified as Sphingomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the representative strains. Within these 7 Sphingomonas strains, 6 strains were capable of using fluorene as the sole carbon source, while 2 strains were phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples.
Project description:A systematic survey for the presence of plasmids in 17 different xenobiotic-degrading Sphingomonas strains was performed. In almost all analyzed strains, two to five plasmids with sizes of about 50 to 500 kb were detected by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A comparison of plasmid preparations untreated or treated with S1 nuclease suggested that, in general, Sphingomonas plasmids are circular. Hybridization experiments with labeled gene probes suggested that large plasmids are involved in the degradation of dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and naphthalenesulfonates in S. wittichii RW1, Sphingomonas sp. HH69, and S. xenophaga BN6, respectively. The plasmids which are responsible for the degradation of naphthalene, biphenyl, and toluene by S. aromaticivorans F199 (pNL1) and of naphthalenesulfonates by S. xenophaga BN6 (pBN6) were site-specifically labeled with a kanamycin resistance cassette. The conjugative transfer of these labeled plasmids was attempted with various bacterial strains as putative recipient strains. Thus, a conjugative transfer of plasmid pBN6 from S. xenophaga BN6 to a cured mutant of strain BN6 and to Sphingomonas sp. SS3 was observed. The conjugation experiments with plasmid pNL1 suggested a broader host range of this plasmid, because it was transferred without any obvious structural changes to S. yanoikuyae B1, Sphingomonas sp. SS3, and S. herbicidovorans. In contrast, major plasmid rearrangements were observed in the transconjugants after the transfer of plasmid pNL1 to Sphingomonas sp. HH69 and of pBN6 to Sphingomonas sp. SS3. No indications for the transfer of a Sphingomonas plasmid to bacteria outside of the Sphingomonadaceae were obtained.
Project description:Bacterial strains of the genus Sphingomonas are often isolated from contaminated soils for their ability to use polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The direct detection of Sphingomonas strains in contaminated soils, either indigenous or inoculated, is, as such, of interest for bioremediation purposes. In this study, a culture-independent PCR-based detection method using specific primers targeting the Sphingomonas 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed to assess Sphingomonas diversity in PAH-contaminated soils. PCR using the new primer pair on a set of template DNAs of different bacterial genera showed that the method was selective for bacteria belonging to the family Sphingomonadaceae.Single-band DGGE profiles were obtained for most Sphingomonas strains tested. Strains belonging to the same species had identical DGGE fingerprints, and in most cases, these fingerprints were typical for one species. Inoculated strains could be detected at a cell concentration of 10(4) CFU g of soil(-1). The analysis of Sphingomonas population structures of several PAH-contaminated soils by the new PCR-DGGE method revealed that soils containing the highest phenanthrene concentrations showed the lowest Sphingomonas diversity. Sequence analysis of cloned PCR products amplified from soil DNA revealed new 16S rRNA gene Sphingomonas sequences significantly different from sequences from known cultivated isolates (i.e., sequences from environmental clones grouped phylogenetically with other environmental clone sequences available on the web and that possibly originated from several potential new species). In conclusion, the newly designed Sphingomonas-specific PCR-DGGE detection technique successfully analyzed the Sphingomonas communities from polluted soils at the species level and revealed different Sphingomonas members not previously detected by culture-dependent detection techniques.
Project description:Sphingomonas koreensis is an aerobic Gram-negative rod originally described in 2001 following isolation from natural mineral water in Korea. Here, we report a case study with Sphingomonas koreensis as the causative agent of meningitis. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of Sphingomonas koreensis as a human pathogen.
Project description:Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain FARSPH, isolated from an insect cell line as a contaminant. FARSPH shared high identity with Sphingomonas melonis and Sphingomonas aquatilis strains. Due to this finding, we recommend taking this genus into consideration for cell culture quality control.
Project description:Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.
Project description:Diverse bacterial taxa live in association with plants without causing deleterious effects. Previous analyses of phyllosphere communities revealed the predominance of few bacterial genera on healthy dicotyl plants, provoking the question of whether these commensals play a particular role in plant protection. Here, we tested two of them, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas, with respect to their ability to diminish disease symptom formation and the proliferation of the foliar plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 on Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the absence or presence of the potential antagonists and then challenged with the pathogen. No effect of Methylobacterium strains on disease development was observed. However, members of the genus Sphingomonas showed a striking plant-protective effect by suppressing disease symptoms and diminishing pathogen growth. A survey of different Sphingomonas strains revealed that most plant isolates protected A. thaliana plants from developing severe disease symptoms. This was not true for Sphingomonas strains isolated from air, dust, or water, even when they reached cell densities in the phyllosphere comparable to those of the plant isolates. This suggests that plant protection is common among plant-colonizing Sphingomonas spp. but is not a general trait conserved within the genus Sphingomonas. The carbon source profiling of representative isolates revealed differences between protecting and nonprotecting strains, suggesting that substrate competition plays a role in plant protection by Sphingomonas. However, other mechanisms cannot be excluded at this time. In conclusion, the ability to protect plants as shown here in a model system may be an unexplored, common trait of indigenous Sphingomonas spp. and may be of relevance under natural conditions.