Project description:Statins inhibit cholesterol biogenesis and modulate atheroma inflammation to reduce cardiovascular risks. Promoted by immune and non-immune cells, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) might be a biomarker suboptimal to assess inflammation status. Although it has been reported that statins modulated inflammation via microRNAs (miRNAs), evidence remains lacking on comprehensive profiling of statin-induced miRNAome alterations in immune cells. We recruited 19 hypercholesterolemic patients receiving 2 mg/day pitavastatin and 15 ones receiving 10 mg/day atorvastatin treatment for 12 weeks, and performed microarray-based profiling of 1733 human mature miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and after statin treatment. Differentially expressed miRNAs were determined if their fold changes were >1.50 or <0.67, after validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The miRSystem and miTALOS platforms were utilized for pathway analysis. Of the 34 patients aged 63.7 ± 6.2 years, 27 were male and 19 were with coronary artery disease. We discovered that statins induced differential expressions of miR-483-5p, miR-4667-5p, miR-1244, and miR-3609, with qPCR-validated fold changes of 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.15), 1.61 (1.25-1.98), 1.61 (1.01-2.21), and 1.68 (1.19-2.17), respectively. The fold changes of the four miRNAs were not correlated with changes of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol or CRP, after sex, age, and statin type were adjusted. We also revealed that RhoA and transforming growth factor-? signaling pathways might be regulated by the four miRNAs. Given our findings, miRNAs might be involved in statin-induced inflammation modulation in PBMCs, providing likelihood to assess and reduce inflammation in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Innate immune memory, also refered to as trained immunity (TRIM) is the phenomenon whereby innate immune cells such as monocytes or macrophages undergo functional reprogramming after exposure to microbial components or metabolites. The cholesterol pathway is also involved in TRIM, and in this study we compared the transcriptomes of patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after statin treatment for 3 months. Overall design: Monocytes from healthy controls and patients with hypercholestoremia before and after 3 months of Statin treatment
Project description:In addition to diet therapy, statins are used to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia (HC). However, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) still occurs in statin-treated patients. How strictly statin-treated patients follow diet therapy before they experience AIS and whether they increase seafood consumption remains unknown. We investigated the serum concentrations and proportions (weight percentages: wt %) of fatty acids (FAs) at AIS onset in statin-treated patients (statin group), compared to those in non-treated patients with HC (6.465 mmol/L or higher) as controls (non-treated group). We included patients with AIS admitted between 2016 and 2019 within 24 h of AIS onset who underwent analysis of serum FAs. During the study period, 188 patients met the inclusion criteria: 133 in the statin group and 55 in the non-treated group. Interestingly, serum FA concentrations in the statin group were lower than those in the non-treated group. However, serum FA wt % in the statin group was almost identical to that in the non-treated group. In conclusion, statin-treated AIS patients had low FA concentrations and identical FA wt %, compared to non-treated AIS patients with HC.
Project description:Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may be at increased risk for statin-associated muscle symptoms because they require long-term treatment with high-intensity statin therapy. We sought to determine (1) whether other predisposing factors, including the well-known genetic variant associated with statin-associated muscle symptoms-solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) rs4149056-also increase the risk of statin-associated muscle symptoms in FH patients, and (2) the natural history and management for FH patients with statin-associated muscle symptoms.We queried electronic records (2004-2014) of 278 genetically screened FH patients (113 men, 165 women; mean [SD] pretreatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] 259  mg/dL) recruited from lipid clinics in the Dallas, TX, area from 2004 to 2014. Statin-associated muscle symptoms were defined as muscle symptoms arising while taking a statin and interrupting therapy.The risk of muscle symptoms was associated with age (odds ratio 1.6 [95% CI 1.2-2.2]), body mass index in non-African Americans (0.90 [0.83-0.97]), and hypertension (0.4 [0.2-0.9]). Simvastatin was the most commonly used statin, and it was the statin most associated with muscle symptoms. Among FH patients with muscle symptoms, 41% (n = 40) reestablished statin therapy ("eventually tolerant") and 29% (n = 28) never reestablished statin therapy ("never tolerant"). Rosuvastatin (43%) and pravastatin (30%) were the most common eventually tolerated statins, and eventually tolerant patients achieved lower treated LDL-C levels (eventually tolerant 127 vs never tolerant 192 mg/dL, P < .001). Never tolerant patients also developed muscle symptoms on nonstatins (16% vs 50%, P = .003). SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotyping revealed 224 wild-type patients (TT) and 49 heterozygotes (TC). SLCO1B1 genotype was not associated with the risk of statin-associated muscle symptoms (odds ratio 1.40 [95% CI 0.74-2.64]).Age, not SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotype, was the strongest risk factor for statin-associated muscle symptoms in FH patients. After developing muscle symptoms, many patients reestablished statin therapy and achieved significant LDL-C reductions. Overall, 10% of all FH patients had statin-associated muscle symptoms and never reestablished statin therapy. Such patients developed muscle symptoms even on nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs and continued to have elevations in LDL-C. Further insight is needed into the relationship between FH and statin-associated muscle symptoms so all FH patients can be adequately treated.
Project description:Statins are generally well-tolerated and serious side effects are infrequent, but some patients experience adverse events and reduce their statin dose or discontinue treatment altogether. Alirocumab is a highly specific, fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which can produce substantial and sustained reductions of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 ODYSSEY NIPPON study will explore alirocumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in 163 Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin (5 mg/day) or are receiving a non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, ezetimibe, or diet therapy alone). Hypercholesterolemia is defined as LDL-C ? 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or non-familial hypercholesterolemia with a history of documented coronary heart disease, or ?120 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia classified as primary prevention category III (i.e. high-risk patients). During the 12-week double-blind treatment period, patients will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive alirocumab subcutaneously (SC) 150 mg Q4W alternating with placebo for alirocumab Q4W, or alirocumab 150 mg SC every 2 weeks (Q2W), or SC placebo Q2W. The primary efficacy endpoint is the percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 12. The long-term safety and tolerability of alirocumab will also be investigated.The ODYSSEY NIPPON study will provide insights into the efficacy and safety of alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 150 mg Q2W among Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin, or are receiving a non-statin LLT (including diet therapy alone).ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02584504.
Project description:Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of patients taking statins experience muscle related adverse events. Myalgia, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels, is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin-associated myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin-induced myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in the biopsied skeletal muscle from statin-intolerant patients undergoing statin re-challenge versus those of statin-tolerant controls. A robust separation of statin-intolerant and statin-tolerant cohorts was revealed by Principal Component Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). To identify putative gene expression and metabolic pathways that may be perturbed in skeletal muscles of statin intolerant patients, we subjected DEGs to Ingenuity Pathways (IPA) and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analyses. The most prominent pathways altered by statins included cellular stress, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair (TP53, BARD1, Mre11 and RAD51); activation of pro-inflammatory immune response (CXCL12, CST5, POU2F1); protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation and RAS-GTPase activation (FDFT1, LSS, TP53, UBD, ATF2, H-ras). Based on these data we tentatively conclude that persistent myalgia in response to statins may emanate from cellular stress underpinned by mechanisms of post-inflammatory repair and regeneration. We also posit that this subset of individuals are genetically predisposed to eliciting altered statin metabolism and/or increased end-organ susceptibility that lead to a range of statin-induced myopathies. This mechanistic scenario further bolstered by the discovery that a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and RYR2) associated with statin myopathy were observed with increased frequency among statin-intolerant study subjects. Overall design: Compare gene expression (RNA) in muscle biopsies from statin tolerant and statin intolerant individuals following statin rechallenge
Project description:Purpose: To investigate the association between statin use and stomach cancer incidence in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Materials and methods: To examine the cumulative effect of statins, we defined a statin user as one who used statins during 2002-2003 at baseline. Statin users were further classified into high and low users according to the medication possession rate. Statin non-users consisted of participants who had never used statins during the entire period of 2002-2015, despite having hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level ?250 mg/dL at baseline). Ultimately, 17,737 statin users and 13,412 statin non-users were used in the analysis. We performed survival analyses, considering the diagnosis of stomach cancer as an event of interest. Results: Median follow-up duration was 12.9 years. The cumulative incidence rates of stomach cancer were lowest in high users (1.90% in men and 0.98% in women). Compared to non-users, hazard ratios (95% confidential intervals) for stomach cancer of low users and high users were 0.953 (0.755-1.203) and 0.526 (0.399-0.693) in men and 0.629 (0.457-0.865) and 0.370 (0.256-0.535) in women, respectively, after adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions: We observed an inverse association between statin use and stomach cancer incidence in participants with hypercholesterolemia.
Project description:Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9-mAb) have been studied intensively to identify their effect in lowering levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the applicable target of PCSK9-mAbs remains inconclusive so far. Therefore, this first meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the therapeutic efficacy and safety of PCSK9-mAbs on the potential patients: familial hypercholesterolemia and statin-intolerant patients. All randomized controlled trials that met the search terms were retrieved in multiple databases. Efficacy outcomes included parameter changes from baseline in LDL-C and other lipid levels. Therapeutic safety were evaluated by rates of common adverse events. A total of 15 studies encompassing 4,288 patients with at least 8 weeks duration were selected. Overall, the therapeutic efficacy was achieved with significant reduction in LDL-C, TC, TG, Lp(a), Apo-B versus placebo. The decline in familial hypercholesterolemia patients (-53.28%, 95% CI: -59.88 to -46.68%) was even more obvious than that in statin-intolerant patients (-34.95%, 95% CI: -41.46 to -28.45%). No obvious safety difference was found out in the rates of common and serious adverse events. To conclude, PCSK9-mAb contributes to the decreased level of LDL-C and other lipids in familial hypercholesterolemia and statin-intolerant patients with satisfactory safety and tolerability.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of this study was to evaluate the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering efficacy and safety of a bempedoic acid 180?mg and ezetimibe 10?mg fixed-dose combination in patients with hypercholesterolemia and a high risk of cardiovascular disease receiving maximally tolerated statin therapy. METHODS:This phase 3, double-blind clinical trial enrolled adult patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:2:1) to treatment with the fixed-dose combination, bempedoic acid 180?mg, ezetimibe 10?mg or placebo added to stable background statin therapy for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage change from baseline to week 12 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS:Among the 301 patients included in the primary analysis, the mean baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 3.87?mmol/L (149.8?mg/dL). At week 12, the fixed-dose combination lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-36.2%) significantly more than placebo (1.8% (placebo-corrected difference -38.0%); P?<?0.001), ezetimibe alone (-23.2%; P?<?0.001) or bempedoic acid alone (-17.2%; P?<?0.001). The fixed-dose combination lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels similarly across subgroups, including patients receiving high-intensity, other-intensity or no statin therapy. Improvements with the fixed-dose combination were also observed in secondary efficacy endpoints, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In this trial, fixed-dose combination treatment had a generally similar safety profile compared with bempedoic acid, ezetimibe or placebo. CONCLUSION:The bempedoic acid and ezetimibe fixed-dose combination significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus placebo or other oral monotherapies and had a favourable safety profile when added to maximally tolerated statin therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia and high cardiovascular disease risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03337308.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the contribution of the rs3846662 polymorphism of HMGCR on serum lipid levels and statin efficacy, we measured in vivo HMGCR mRNA and lipid levels in French Canadian individuals affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia due to the deletion of more than 15 kb of the LDLR gene. RESULTS:Men and women carrying the AA genotype at rs3846662, and no APOE4 allele, had higher levels of total cholesterol (5.43 vs. 4.58 mmol/l, P<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (5.20 vs. 4.39 mmol/l, P<0.05) at baseline. However, with regard to statin efficacy, the penetrance of the AA genotype was sex dependent. Indeed, the percentage reduction in LDL-cholesterol upon statin treatment was significantly decreased in women with the AA genotype compared with women without it (38.4 vs. 46.2%, P<0.05), whereas this was not observed in men. Although both men and women bearing the AA genotype showed a higher ratio of full-length HMGCR mRNA/total HMGCR mRNA compared with individuals without it (n=37, P<0.05), overall transcription of HMGCR was decreased and increased in men and women carrying this genotype, respectively (n=37, P<0.01 and P<0.05). Finally, in our familial hypercholesterolemia cohort, HMGCR alternative splicing explained between 22 and 55% of the variance in statin response. CONCLUSION:rs3846662 polymorphism and the alternative splicing of HMGCR mRNA significantly impact women's response to statin therapy.