Project description:Culturomics is a concept developing different culture conditions in order to enlarge our knowledge of the human microbiota through the discovery of previously uncultured bacteria. This enabled us to isolate six new species of the Bacteroides genus: Bacteroides mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2644, Bacteroides ihuae strain Marseille-P2824, Bacteroides togonis strain Marseille-P3166, Bacteroides ndongoniae strain Marseille-P3108, Bacteroides ilei strain Marseille-P3208 and Bacteroides congonensis strain Marseille-P3132. Those bacteria are Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli. We describe here their phenotypic features, together with phylogenetic analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry spectrum, fatty acid composition, and genome sequencing and annotation.
Project description:Bacteroides timonensis strain AP1(T) (= CSUR P194 = DSM 26083) is the type strain of B. timonensis sp. nov. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a 21-year-old French Caucasoid female who suffered from severe anorexia nervosa. Bacteroides timonensis is a Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 7,130,768 bp long genome (1 chromosome, no plasmid) exhibits a G+C content of 43.3% and contains 5,786 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes, including 2 rRNA genes.
Project description:Two groups of unknown bacteria, which phenotypically resemble members of the Bacteroides fragilis group but phylogenetically display >5% 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from their nearest validly described species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Phylogenetically and phenotypically, the unidentified bacteria displayed a relatively close association with each other. However, a 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence of approximately 4% between the two unknown bacteria, as well as distinguishable biochemical characteristics, demonstrates that these organisms are genotypically and phenotypically distinct, and each group may represent a previously unknown subline within the Bacteroides phylogenetic cluster. Subsequent DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that the two novel organisms were indeed distinct from each other. The previously described species closest to both of them is B. thetaiotaomicron (approximately 94% sequence similarity), but they can be differentiated easily from B. thetaiotaomicron by virtue of not utilizing trehalose. DNA-DNA pairing studies also documented the separateness of the unknown species and B. thetaiotaomicron. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, two new species, "Bacteroides nordii" sp. nov. and "Bacteroides salyersae" sp. nov, are proposed. The G+C content of the DNA is 41.4 mol% for Bacteroides nordii and 42.0 mol% for Bacteroides salyersae. The type strains of Bacteroides nordii and Bacteroides salyersae are WAL 11050 (ATCC BAA-998 or CCUG 48943) and WAL 10018 (ATCC BAA-997 or CCUG 48945), respectively.
Project description:Bacteroides neonati strain MS4(T), is the type strain of Bacteroides neonati sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacteroides. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from a premature neonate stool sample. B. neonati strain MS4(T) is an obligate anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 5.03 Mbp long genome exhibits a G+C content of 43.53% and contains 4,415 protein-coding and 91 RNA genes, including 9 rRNA genes.
Project description:<i>Bacteroides</i> sp. CACC 737 was isolated from a feline, and its potential probiotic properties were characterized using functional genome analysis. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using the PacBio RSII and Illumina HiSeq platforms. The complete genome of strain CACC 737 contained 4.6 Mb, with a guanine (G) + cytosine (C) content of 45.8%, six cryptic plasmids, and extracellular polysaccharide gene as unique features. The strain was beneficial to animal health when consumed as feed, for example, for ameliorating immunological dysfunctions and metabolic disorders. The genome information adds to the comprehensive understanding of <i>Bacteroides</i> sp. and suggests potential animal-related industrial applications for this strain.
Project description:Genome sequencing projects revealed massive cryptic gene clusters encoding the undiscovered secondary metabolites in Streptomyces. To investigate the metabolic products of silent gene clusters in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10 (CGMCC 2644), we used site-directed mutagenesis to generate ten mutants with point mutations in the highly conserved region of rpsL (encoding the ribosomal protein S12) or rpoB (encoding the RNA polymerase ?-subunit). Among them, L10/RpoB (H437Y) accumulated a dark pigment on a yeast extract-malt extract-glucose (YMG) plate. This was absent in the wild type. After further investigation, a novel angucycline antibiotic named anthrachamycin was isolated and determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were performed to investigate the mechanism underlying the activation effect on the anthrachamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. This work indicated that the rpoB-specific missense H437Y mutation had activated anthrachamycin biosynthesis in S. chattanoogensis L10. This may be helpful in the investigation of the pleiotropic regulation system in Streptomyces.
Project description:Horizontal DNA transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis. To further our understanding of DNA transfer in B. fragilis, we isolated and characterized a new transfer factor, cLV25. cLV25 was isolated from B. fragilis LV25 by its capture on the nonmobilizable Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector pGAT400DeltaBglII. Similar to other Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, cLV25 was mobilized in E. coli by the conjugative plasmid R751. Using Tn1000 mutagenesis and deletion analysis of cLV25, two mobilization genes, bmgA and bmgB, were identified, whose predicted proteins have similarity to DNA relaxases and mobilization proteins, respectively. In particular, BmgA and BmgB were homologous to MocA and MocB, respectively, the two mobilization proteins of the B. fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn4399. A cis-acting origin of transfer (oriT) was localized to a 353-bp region that included nearly all of the intergenic region between bmgB and orf22 and overlapped with the 3' end of orf22. This oriT contained a putative nic site sequence but showed no significant similarity to the oriT regions of other transfer factors, including Tn4399. Despite the lack of sequence similarity between the oriTs of cLV25 and Tn4399, a mutation in the cLV25 putative DNA relaxase, bmgA, was partially complemented by Tn4399. In addition to the functional cross-reaction with Tn4399, a second distinguishing feature of cLV25 is that predicted proteins have similarity to proteins encoded not only by Tn4399 but by several Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, including NBU1, NBU2, CTnDOT, Tn4555, and Tn5520.
Project description:scnA (GenBank: ADX66464.1) and scnB (GenBank: ADX66465.1) are ABC transporters located in the biosysnthesis gene cluster of natamycin in Streptomyces chattanoogensis. The two genes are presumbly involved in natamycin efflux. Our goal of this expriment was to investigate the effect of scnA and scnB inactivation on the gene expression in the whole genome. In ∆scnAB there were a total of 219 genes displaying at least a two-fold change (P<0.05), including 89 genes with lower and 130 genes with higher expressions In this study, RNA isolated from ∆scnAB or wild type Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, was used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 8,117 protein-coding genes in S. chattanoogensis L10, leading to the successful construction of different expression profiles between scnA and scnB deletion mutant and wild type S. chattanoogensis L10.
Project description:The microbial community in the human colon contains bacteria that reduce cholesterol to coprostanol, but the species responsible for this conversion are still unknown. We describe here the first isolation and characterization of a cholesterol-reducing bacterium of human intestinal origin. Strain D8 was isolated from a 10(-8) dilution of a fresh stool sample provided by a senior male volunteer with a high capacity to reduce luminal cholesterol to coprostanol. Cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion by strain D8 started on the third day, while cells were in stationary phase, and was almost complete after 7 days. Intermediate products (4-cholesten-3-one and coprostanone) were occasionally observed, suggesting an indirect pathway for cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion. Resting-cell assays showed that strain D8 could reduce 1.5 mumol of cholesterol/mg bacterial protein/h. Strain D8 was a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped organism identified as a member of the genus Bacteroides closely related to Bacteroides vulgatus, based on its morphological and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain D8 was most similar (>99.5%) to those of two isolates of the recently described species Bacteroides dorei. Phylogenetic tree construction confirmed that Bacteroides sp. strain D8 clustered within an independent clade together with these B. dorei strains. Nevertheless, no cholesterol-reducing activity could be detected in cultures of the B. dorei type strain. Based on Bacteroides group-specific PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, there was no correlation between the presence of a band comigrating with the band of Bacteroides sp. strain D8 and cholesterol conversion in 11 human fecal samples, indicating that this strain is unlikely to be mainly responsible for cholesterol conversion in the human population.
Project description:Bacterial endophytes with the capacity to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and promote plant growth may facilitate phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A hydrocarbon-degrading, biosurfactant-producing, and plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa L10, was isolated from the roots of a reed, Phragmites australis, in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong, China. P. aeruginosa L10 efficiently degraded C10-C26n-alkanes from diesel oil, as well as common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. In addition, P. aeruginosa L10 could produce biosurfactant, which was confirmed by the oil spreading method, and surface tension determination of inocula. Moreover, P. aeruginosa L10 had plant growth-stimulating attributes, including siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) release, along with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic (ACC) deaminase activity. To explore the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic traits of endophytic P. aeruginosa L10, we sequenced its complete genome. From the genome, we identified genes related to petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, such as putative genes encoding monooxygenase, dioxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Genome annotation revealed that P. aeruginosa L10 contained a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids, rhlABRI, which should be responsible for the observed biosurfactant activity. We also identified two clusters of genes involved in the biosynthesis of siderophore (pvcABCD and pchABCDREFG). The genome also harbored tryptophan biosynthetic genes (trpAB, trpDC, trpE, trpF, and trpG) that are responsible for IAA synthesis. Moreover, the genome contained the ACC deaminase gene essential for ACC deaminase activity. This study will facilitate applications of endophytic P. aeruginosa L10 to phytoremediation by advancing the understanding of hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, and mutualistic interactions between endophytes and host plants.