Project description:We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4+ T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4+ T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4+ T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4+ T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4+ T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-? secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4+ T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells.
Project description:We found that IL-7 pretreatment enhanced Th9 differentiation. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we examine the gene expression profiles of CD4+ T cell and Th9 cells with or without IL-7 pretreatment. In Th9 cells, we found that Th9 related genes were greatly increased in IL-7 Th9 group, which demonstrated an enhanced Th9 differentiation. In CD4+ T cells, we found that IL-7 treatment resulted in a global gene expression change especially on chromatin remodeling related genes, which facilitated the entry of transcriptional factor to the Il9 promoter region and promoted Il9 transcription. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from naïve CD4+ T cells or Th9 cells from C57BL/6 mice with or without IL-7 treatment; For CD4+ T cells, IL-7 treated for 0h, 6h or 24h. For Th9 cells, naïve CD4+ T cells were treated for 48h and then cultured for 3 days under Th9 condittion.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of mouse Th2, Th9, and iTreg cells. Transcriptomes were compared with that of naïve CD4 T cells. Goal was to screen subset-specific genes. Overall design: Transcriptional profiling of mouse Th2, Th9, and iTreg cells were compared with that of naïve CD4 T cells. Biological replicates: 1 Naïve vs Th2, 1 Naïve vs Th9, 1 Naïve vs Treg.
Project description:T helper (Th) cells orchestrate allergic lung inflammation in asthma pathogenesis. Th9 is a novel Th cell subset that mainly produces IL-9, a potent proinflammatory cytokine in asthma. A 7-amino acid peptide (7P) of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus has been identified as an important regulator in the type 2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) immune response. However, it is unknown whether 7P regulates Th9 cell differentiation during ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced allergic lung inflammation. To address this, we studied wild-type mice treated with 7P and a control peptide in an in vivo mouse model of OVA-induced allergic inflammation and an in vitro cell model of Th9 differentiation, using flow cytometry, cytokine assays, and quantitative PCR. The binding of 7P to CD81 on naïve CD4+ T cells during lung Th9 differentiation was determined using CD81 overexpression and siRNA knockdown analyses. Administration of 7P significantly reduced Th9 cell differentiation after OVA sensitization and exposure. 7P also inhibited Th9 cell differentiation from naïve and memory CD4+ T cells in vitro. Furthermore, 7P inhibited the differentiation of human Th9 cells with high CD81 expression from naïve CD4+ T cells by blocking CD81 signaling. CD81 siRNA significantly reduced Th9 cell differentiation from naïve CD4+ T cells in vitro. Interestingly, CD81 overexpression in human naïve CD4+ T cells also enhanced Th9 development in vitro. These data indicate that 7P may be a good candidate for reducing IL-9 production in asthma.
Project description:Microarray analyses were performed to compare gene expression in cultured mouse Th9, Th2 and Treg cells and resting versus activated Th9 cells. Three replicates were analyzed for each culture condition; Th9 unstim, Th2 unstim, Treg unstim, Th9 stim
Project description:The antitumor effector T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells represent two T cell paradigms: short-lived cytolytic Th1 cells and "stem cell-like" memory Th17 cells. We report that Th9 cells represent a third paradigm-they are less-exhausted, fully cytolytic, and hyperproliferative. Only tumor-specific Th9 cells completely eradicated advanced tumors, maintained a mature effector cell signature with cytolytic activity as strong as Th1 cells, and persisted as long as Th17 cells in vivo. Th9 cells displayed a unique Pu.1-Traf6-NF-?B activation-driven hyperproliferative feature, suggesting a persistence mechanism rather than an antiapoptotic strategy. Th9 antitumor efficacy depended on interleukin-9 and upregulated expression of Eomes and Traf6. Thus, tumor-specific Th9 cells are a more effective CD4+ T cell subset for adoptive cancer therapy.
Project description:Tumor-specific CD4+ T helper 9 (TH9) cells, so-called because of their production of the cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9), are a powerful effector T cell subset for cancer immunotherapy. We found that pretreatment of naïve CD4+ T cells with IL-7 further enhanced their differentiation into TH9 cells and augmented their antitumor activity. IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. As a result, the transcriptional regulator Foxo1 was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, bound to the Il9 promoter, and induced the production of IL-9 protein. In contrast, Foxp1, which bound to the Il9 promoter in naïve CD4+ T cells and inhibited Il9 expression, was outcompeted for binding to the Il9 promoter by Foxo1 and translocated to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, forced expression of Foxo1 or a deficiency in Foxp1 in CD4+ T cells markedly increased the production of IL-9, whereas a deficiency in Foxo1 inhibited the ability of IL-7 to enhance the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells. Thus, we identified the roles of Foxo1 as a positive regulator and Foxp1 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation and antitumor activity, which may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:With reduced thymic activity, the population of naïve T cells in humans is maintained by homeostatic proliferation throughout adult life. In young adults, naïve CD4 T cells have enormous proliferative potential and plasticity to differentiate into different lineages. Here, we explored whether naïve CD4 T-cell aging is associated with a partial loss of this unbiased multipotency. We find that naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals have developed a propensity to develop into TH9 cells. Two major mechanisms contribute to this predisposition. First, responsiveness to transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) stimulation is enhanced with age due to an upregulation of the TGF?R3 receptor that results in increased expression of the transcription factor PU.1. Secondly, aged naïve CD4 T cells display altered transcription factor profiles in response to T-cell receptor stimulation, including enhanced expression of BATF and IRF4 and reduced expression of ID3 and BCL6. These transcription factors are involved in TH9 differentiation as well as IL9 transcription suggesting that the aging-associated changes in the transcription factor profile favor TH9 commitment.
Project description:Th9 cells are a subset of CD4+ Th cells that produce the pleiotropic cytokine IL-9. IL-9/Th9 can function as both positive and negative regulators of immune response, but the role of IL-9/Th9 in tumor immunity is unknown. We examined the role of IL-9/Th9 in a model of pulmonary melanoma in mice. Lack of IL-9 enhanced tumor growth, while tumor-specific Th9 cell treatment promoted stronger antitumor responses in both prophylactic and therapeutic models. Th9 cells also elicited strong host antitumor CD8+ CTL responses by promoting Ccl20/Ccr6-dependent recruitment of DCs to the tumor tissues. Subsequent tumor antigen delivery to the draining LN resulted in CD8+ T cell priming. In agreement with this model, Ccr6 deficiency abrogated the Th9 cell-mediated antitumor response. Our data suggest a distinct role for tumor-specific Th9 cells in provoking CD8+ CTL-mediated antitumor immunity and indicate that Th9 cell-based cancer immunotherapy may be a promising therapeutic approach.
Project description:T helper 9 (Th9) cells are specialized for the production of IL-9, promote allergic inflammation in mice, and are associated with allergic disease in humans. It has not been determined whether Th9 cells express a characteristic transcriptional signature. In this study, we performed microarray analysis to identify genes enriched in Th9 cells compared with other Th subsets. This analysis defined a transcriptional regulatory network required for the expression of a subset of Th9-enriched genes. The activator protein 1 (AP1) family transcription factor BATF (B cell, activating transcription factor–like) was among the genes enriched in Th9 cells and was required for the expression of IL-9 and other Th9-associated genes in both human and mouse T cells. The expression of BATF was increased in Th9 cultures derived from atopic infants compared with Th9 cultures from control infants. T cells deficient in BATF expression had a diminished capacity to promote allergic inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Moreover, mouse Th9 cells ectopically expressing BATF were more efficient at promoting allergic inflammation than control transduced cells. These data indicate that BATF is a central regulator of the Th9 phenotype and contributes to the development of allergic inflammation.