Project description:As the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis, food-borne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is a tool providing quick and inexpensive approaches for analysis of food-borne pathogen epidemics. Here we report the WGS and annotation of a Campylobacter coli strain, FNW20G12, which was isolated from milk in the United States in 1997 and carries multidrug resistance. The draft genome of FNW20G12 (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession number LWIH00000000) contains 1, 855,435 bp (GC content 31.4%) with 1902 annotated coding regions, 48 RNAs and resistance to aminoglycoside, beta-lactams, tetracycline, as well as fluoroquinolones. There are very few genome reports of C. coli from dairy products with multidrug resistance. Here the draft genome of FNW20G12, a C. coli strain isolated from raw milk, is presented to aid in the epidemiology study of C. coli antimicrobial resistance and role in foodborne outbreak.
Project description:Campylobacter coli is considered one of the main causes of food-borne illness worldwide. We report here the whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli strain COL B1-266, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The genome sequences encode genes for a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including aminoglycosides, ?-lactams, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines.
Project description:Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter coli strains WA333, YF2105, BG2108, MG1116, and BP3183 and Campylobacter jejuni strain IF1100 isolated from retail chicken liver showed the presence of 1,841,551-, 1,687,232-, 1,695,638-, 1,665,146-, 1,695,360-, and 1,744,171-bp circular chromosomes, respectively. These isolates also contained plasmids ranging in size from 5,209 to 55,122 bp.
Project description:Campylobacter coli strain 15-537360 was originally isolated in 2001 from a 42-year-old patient with gastroenteritis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence, which comprises a 1.7-Mbp chromosome and a 29-kbp conjugative cryptic plasmid. This is the first complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate of C. coli.
Project description:Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States. WGS, de novo assembly, and annotation of the genome revealed a chromosome of 1,718,974 bp and a mega-plasmid (pCOS502) of 125,964 bp. GC content of the genome was 31.2% with 1931 coding sequences and 53 non-coding RNAs. Multiple virulence factors including a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system and antimicrobial resistance genes (beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycoside) were found. The presence of T6SS in a mobile genetic element (plasmid) suggests plausible horizontal transfer of these virulence genes to other organisms. The C. coli YH502 genome also harbors CRISPR sequences and associated proteins. Phylogenetic analysis based on average nucleotide identity and single nucleotide polymorphisms identified closely related C. coli genomes available in the NCBI database. Taken together, the analyzed genomic data of this potentially virulent strain of C. coli will facilitate further understanding of this important foodborne pathogen most likely leading to better control strategies. The chromosome and plasmid sequences of C. coli YH502 have been deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers CP018900.1 and CP018901.1, respectively.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two of the major causes of foodborne illness. In this study, 29 plasmids isolated from 20 retail meat isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were fully-sequenced individually or as a part of a whole genome sequencing approach. The fully-sequenced plasmids ranged in size from 3 to 119 kb. Molecular characterization of the sequenced plasmids was based on pangenomic analysis and types of genes present on these plasmids and similar ones from GenBank. The plasmids were categorized into four different groups. These groups include type-1 that consisted mainly of pTet plasmids with the tetO gene, type-2 plasmids commonly found in C. coli strains, type-3 which has pVir plasmids, and type-4 that consisted mainly of smaller plasmids. The type-2 plasmids were unique, common among C. coli strains, and carried several conjugative transfer genes. The type-2 plasmids were most similar to a plasmid from Helicobacter pullorum. Maximum parsimony analysis and NeighborNet analysis were used to assess the phylogenetic relatedness among the 29 plasmid sequences presented in this study in addition to the other 104 plasmid sequences of Campylobacter species available in GenBank to date. Results from MP analysis revealed multiple lineages among Campylobacter plasmids which was supported by NeighborNet analysis. Clustering of plasmids did not conform to species-specific clades which suggested an intra-species dissemination of plasmids among Campylobacter species. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of Campylobacter plasmids sequenced to date.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli share a multitude of risk factors associated with human gastrointestinal disease, yet their phylogeny differs significantly. C. jejuni is scattered into several lineages, with no apparent linkage, whereas C. coli clusters into three distinct phylogenetic groups (clades) of which clade 1 has shown extensive genome-wide introgression with C. jejuni, yet the other two clades (2 and 3) have less than 2% of C. jejuni ancestry. We characterized a C. coli strain (76339) with four novel multilocus sequence type alleles (ST-5088) and having the capability to express gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT); an accessory feature in C. jejuni. Our aim was to further characterize unintrogressed C. coli clades 2 and 3, using comparative genomics and with additional genome sequences available, to investigate the impact of horizontal gene transfer in shaping the accessory and core gene pools in unintrogressed C. coli. RESULTS: Here, we present the first fully closed C. coli clade 3 genome (76339). The phylogenomic analysis of strain 76339, revealed that it belonged to clade 3 of unintrogressed C. coli. A more extensive respiratory metabolism among unintrogressed C. coli strains was found compared to introgressed C. coli (clade 1). We also identified other genes, such as serine proteases and an active sialyltransferase in the lipooligosaccharide locus, not present in C. coli clade 1 and we further propose a unique scenario for the evolution of Campylobacter ggt. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new insights into the evolution of the accessory genome of C. coli clade 3 and C. jejuni. Also, in silico analysis of the gene content revealed that C. coli clades 2 and 3 have genes associated with infection, suggesting they are a potent human pathogen, and may currently be underreported in human infections due to niche separation.
Project description:Campylobacter species are the most prevalent bacterial pathogen causing acute enteritis worldwide. In contrast to Campylobacter jejuni, about 5 % of Campylobacter coli strains exhibit susceptibility to restriction endonuclease digestion by DpnI cutting specifically 5'-G(m)ATC-3' motifs. This indicates significant differences in DNA methylation between both microbial species. The goal of the study was to analyze the methylome of a C. coli strain susceptible to DpnI digestion, to identify its methylation motifs and restriction modification systems (RM-systems), and compare them to related organisms like C. jejuni and Helicobacter pylori.Using one SMRT cell and the PacBio RS sequencing technology followed by PacBio Modification and Motif Analysis the complete genome of the DpnI susceptible strain C. coli BfR-CA-9557 was sequenced to 500-fold coverage and assembled into a single contig of 1.7 Mbp. The genome contains a CJIE1-like element prophage and is phylogenetically closer to C. coli clade 1 isolates than clade 3. 45,881 6-methylated adenines (ca. 2.7 % of genome positions) that are predominantly arranged in eight different methylation motifs and 1,788 4-methylated cytosines (ca. 0.1 %) have been detected. Only two of these motifs correspond to known restriction modification motifs. Characteristic for this methylome was the very high fraction of methylation of motifs with mostly above 99 %.Only five dominant methylation motifs have been identified in C. jejuni, which have been associated with known RM-systems. C. coli BFR-CA-9557 shares one (RAATTY) of these, but four ORFs could be assigned to putative Type I RM-systems, seven ORFs to Type II RM-systems and three ORFs to Type IV RM-systems. In accordance with DpnI prescreening RM-system IIP, methylation of GATC motifs was detected in C. coli BfR-CA-9557. A homologous IIP RM-system has been described for H. pylori. The remaining methylation motifs are specific for C. coli BfR-CA-9557 and have been neither detected in C. jejuni nor in H. pylori. The results of this study give us new insights into epigenetics of Campylobacteraceae and provide the groundwork to resolve the function of RM-systems in C. coli.
Project description:Campylobacter contaminated poultry meat is a major source of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter coli strain OR12 is a robust colonizer of chickens that was previously shown to outcompete and displace other Campylobacter strains from the chicken's gastrointestinal tract. This strain is capable of aerobic growth on blood agar. Serial aerobic passage increased this aerotolerance as assessed by quantitative assays for growth and survival on solid media. Aerotolerance was also associated with increased peroxide stress resistance. Aerobic passage did not alter cellular morphology or motility or hinder the microaerobic growth rate. Colonization of broiler chickens by aerotolerant C. coli OR12 was significantly lower than the wild-type strain at 3 days after challenge but not by 7 days, suggesting adaptation had occurred. Bacteria recovered from chickens had retained their aerotolerance, indicating this trait is stable. Whole genome sequencing enabled comparison with the wild-type sequence. Twenty-three point mutations were present, none of which were in genes known to affect oxidative stress resistance. Insertions or deletions caused frame shifts in several genes including, phosphoglycerate kinase and the b subunit of pyruvate carboxylase that suggest modification of central and carbohydrate metabolism in response to aerobic growth. Other genes affected include those encoding putative carbonic anhydrase, motility accessory factor, filamentous haemagglutinin, and aminoacyl dipeptidase proteins. Aerotolerance has the potential to affect environmental success and survival. Increased environmental survival outside of the host intestinal tract may allow opportunities for transmission between hosts. Resistance to oxidative stress may equate to increased virulence by virtue of reduced susceptibility to oxidative free radicals produced by host immune responses. Finally, resistance to ambient atmospheric oxygen may allow increased survival on chicken skin, and therefore constitutes an increased risk to public health.
Project description:Aminoglycoside resistance in Campylobacter has been routinely monitored in the United States in clinical isolates since 1996 and in retail meats since 2002. Gentamicin resistance first appeared in a single human isolate of Campylobacter coli in 2000 and in a single chicken meat isolate in 2007, after which it increased rapidly to account for 11.3% of human isolates and 12.5% of retail isolates in 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that gentamicin-resistant C. coli isolates from retail meat were clonal. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of this clone using a next-generation sequencing technique in order to investigate the genetic basis for the resistance. The gaps of one strain were closed using optical mapping and Sanger sequencing, and this is the first completed genome of C. coli. The two genomes are highly similar to each other. A self-transmissible plasmid carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes was revealed within both genomes, carrying genes encoding resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, streptothricin, and tetracycline. Bioinformatics analysis and experimental results showed that gentamicin resistance was due to a phosphotransferase gene, aph(2")-Ig, not described previously. The phylogenetic relationship of this newly emerged clone to other Campylobacter spp. was determined by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which showed that it clustered with the other poultry isolates and was separated from isolates from livestock.