Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Complement 1q binding protein (C1QBP/HABP1/p32/gC1qR) has been found to be overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the underlying mechanisms of high C1QBP expression and its role in TNBC remain largely unclear. Hypoxia is a tumor-associated microenvironment that promotes metastasis and paclitaxel (PTX) chemoresistance in tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to assess C1QBP expression and explore its role in hypoxia-related metastasis and chemoresistance in TNBC.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>RNA-sequencing of TNBC cells under hypoxia was performed to identify C1QBP. The effect of hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF-1?) on C1QBP expression was investigated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The role of C1QBP in mediating metastasis, chemoresistance to PTX, and regulation of metastasis-linked vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression were studied using <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments. Clinical tissue microarrays were used to verify the correlation of C1QBP with the expression of HIF-1?, VCAM-1, and RELA proto-oncogene nuclear factor-kappa B subunit (P65).<h4>Results</h4>We found that hypoxia-induced HIF-1? upregulated C1QBP. The inhibition of C1QBP notably blocked metastasis of TNBC cells and increased their sensitivity to PTX under hypoxic conditions. Depletion of C1QBP decreased VCAM-1 expression by reducing the amount of P65 in the nucleus and suppressed the activation of hypoxia-induced protein kinase C-nuclear factor-kappa B (PKC-NF-?B) signaling.immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of the tissue microarray showed positive correlations between the C1QBP level and those of HIF-1?, P65, and VCAM-1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Targeting C1QBP along with PTX treatment might be a potential treatment for TNBC patients.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women and there is an urgent need for new therapeutic drugs targeting aggressive and metastatic subtypes, such as hormone-refractory triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Control of protein synthesis is vital to cell growth and tumour progression and permits increased resistance to therapy and cellular stress. Hypoxic cancer cells attain invasive and metastatic properties and chemotherapy resistance, but the regulation and role of protein synthesis in this setting is poorly understood. We performed a polysomal RNA-Seq screen in non-malignant breast epithelial (MCF10A) and TNBC (MDA-MB-231) cells exposed to normoxic or hypoxic conditions and/or treated with an mTOR pathway inhibitor. Analysis of both the transcriptome and the translatome identified mRNA transcripts translationally activated or repressed by hypoxia in an mTOR-dependent or -independent manner. Integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) was translationally activated in hypoxia and its knockdown increased apoptosis and reduced survival and migration, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, ITGB3 was required for sustained TGF-? pathway activation and for the induction of Snail and associated epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. ITGB3 downregulation significantly reduced lung metastasis and improved overall survival in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that ITGB3 is translationally activated in hypoxia and regulates malignant features, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration, through the TGF-? pathway, revealing a novel angle for the treatment of therapy-resistant hypoxic tumours.
Project description:Complement 1q-Binding Protein (C1qbp) is a mitochondrial protein reported to be upregulated in cancer. However, whether C1qbp plays a tumor suppressive or tumorigenic role in the progression of cancer is controversial. Moreover, the exact effects of C1qbp on cell proliferation, migration, and death/survival have not been definitely proven. To this end, we comprehensively examined the effects of C1qbp on mitochondrial-dependent cell death, proliferation, and migration in both normal and breast cancer cells using genetic gain- and loss-of-function approaches. In normal fibroblasts, overexpression of C1qbp protected the cells against staurosporine-induce apoptosis, increased proliferation, decreased cellular ATP, and increased cell migration in a wound-healing assay. In contrast, the opposite effects were observed in fibroblasts depleted of C1qbp by RNA interference. C1qbp expression was found to be markedly elevated in 4 different human breast cancer cell lines as well as in ductal and adenocarcinoma tumors from breast cancer patients. Stable knockdown of C1qbp by shRNA in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line greatly reduced cell proliferation, increased ATP levels, and decreased cell migration compared to control shRNA-transfected cells. Moreover, C1qbp knockdown elicited a significant increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, C1qbp upregulation was not restricted to breast cancer cells and tumors, as levels of C1qbp were also found to be significantly elevated in both human lung and colon cancer cell lines and carcinomas. Together, these results establish a pro-tumor, rather than anti-tumor, role for C1qbp, and indicate that C1qbp could serve as a molecular target for cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Complement component 1q subcomponent binding protein (C1qbp) is a multifunctional protein involved in immune response, energy homeostasis of cells as a plasma membrane receptor, and a nuclear, cytoplasmic or mitochondrial protein. Recent reports suggested its neuronal function, too, possibly in axon maintenance, synaptic function, and neuroplasticity. Therefore, we addressed to identify C1qbp in the rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunolabelling at light and electron microscopic level. C1qbp has a topographical distribution in the brain established by the same pattern of C1qbp mRNA-expressing and protein-containing neurons with the highest abundance in the cerebral cortex, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate nuclei, spinal trigeminal nucleus. Double labelling of C1qbp with the neuronal marker NeuN, with the astrocyte marker S100, and the microglia marker Iba1 demonstrated the presence of C1qbp in neurons but not in glial cells in the normal brain, while C1qbp appeared in microglia following their activation induced by focal ischemic lesion. Only restricted neurons expressed C1qbp, for example, in the PVN, magnocellular neurons selectively contained C1qbp. Further double labelling by using the mitochondria marker Idh3a antibody suggested the mitochondrial localization of C1qbp in the brain, confirmed by correlated light and electron microscopy at 3 different brain regions. Post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy also suggested uneven C1qbp content of mitochondria in different brain areas but also heterogeneity within single neurons. These data suggest a specific function of C1qbp in the brain related to mitochondria, such as the regulation of local energy supply in neuronal cells.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1? is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1? as aTNBC-specific marker.62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1?, HIF-1?, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1? and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype).HIF-1? protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; ?2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1? protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1? protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; ?2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; ?2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1?. HIF-1? protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1?(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1?(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; ?2 test). Moreover, HIF-1? expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; ?2 test).A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1? but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1? targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the setting of clinically aggressive or refractory disease.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, which shows resistance to common breast cancer therapies, as it lacks the expression of the most common breast cancer targets. Therefore, TNBC treatment remains a challenge. Targeting programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), for example, atezolizumab, has revolutionized the treatment for various cancer types. However, the therapeutic efficacy of targeting PD-L1 in TNBC is currently under investigation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231, expressing PD-L1, responds to atezolizumab, using RNA-Seq. Transcriptome analysis revealed 388 upregulated and 362 downregulated genes in response to atezolizumab treatment. The expression of selected genes, from RNA-Seq data, was subsequently validated using RT-qPCR in the MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells following atezolizumab treatment. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that atezolizumab downregulates genes promoting cell migration/invasion and metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell growth/proliferation/survival, and hypoxia. On the contrary, genes associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were upregulated in response to atezolizumab treatment. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that a significant number of these genes are related to the NF-kB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK, and CD40 signaling pathways. Using functional assays, we confirmed that atezolizumab increases MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis/necrosis, and reduces their proliferation and viability. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms/signaling pathways by which atezolizumab exerts inhibitory effects on TNBC, thereby inhibiting EMT/metastasis, tumor growth/survival, and the induction of hypoxia.
Project description:Chronic tubulointerstitial hypoxia plays an important role as the final common pathway to end-stage renal disease. HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is a master transcriptional factor under hypoxia, regulating downstream target genes. Genome-wide analysis of HIF-1 binding sites using high-throughput sequencers has clarified various kinds of downstream targets and made it possible to demonstrate the novel roles of HIF-1. Our aim of this study is to identify novel HIF-1 downstream epigenetic targets which may play important roles in the kidney. Immortalized tubular cell lines (HK2; human kidney-2) and primary cultured cells (RPTEC; renal proximal tubular cell lines) were exposed to 1% hypoxia for 24-72 h. We performed RNA-seq to clarify the expression of mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). We also examined ChIP-seq to identify HIF-1 binding sites under hypoxia. RNA-seq identified 44 lncRNAs which are up-regulated under hypoxic condition in both cells. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that HIF-1 also binds to the lncRNAs under hypoxia. The expression of novel lncRNA, DARS-AS1 (aspartyl-tRNA synthetase anti-sense 1), is up-regulated only under hypoxia and HIF-1 binds to its promoter region, which includes two hypoxia-responsive elements. Its expression is also up-regulated with cobalt chloride exposure, while it is not under hypoxia when HIF-1 is knocked down by siRNA To clarify the biological roles of DARS-AS1, we measured the activity of caspase 3/7 using anti-sense oligo of DARS-AS1. Knockdown of DARS-AS1 deteriorated apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, we identified the novel lncRNAs regulated by HIF-1 under hypoxia and clarified that DARS-AS1 plays an important role in inhibiting apoptotic cell death in renal tubular cells.
Project description:This study examined the effects of fucoidan on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line in a hypoxic microenvironment. Transwell and wound-healing assays were performed to analyze the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 human mammary cancer cells, respectively. The expression levels of EMT markers and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) were detected through western blotting. Under hypoxia, fucoidan treatment inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells. Fucoidan also suppressed the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting revealed that fucoidan treatment significantly reduced the protein expression levels of HIF-1? and HIF-1 target genes. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1? were reduced. Fucoidan treatment significantly downregulated the expression levels of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), but upregulated the expression levels of the epithelial markers zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin. In addition, overexpression of HIF1-? protected cells from fucoidan-mediated suppression of migration and invasion. These data suggested that fucoidan may inhibit EMT in human TNBC cells via downregulation of the HIF1-? signaling pathway.
Project description:Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. Here we identify hypoxia-induced ECM re-modeler, lysyl oxidase (LOX) as a key inducer of chemoresistance by developing chemoresistant TNBC tumors in vivo and characterizing their transcriptomes by RNA-sequencing. Inhibiting LOX reduces collagen cross-linking and fibronectin assembly, increases drug penetration, and downregulates ITGA5/FN1 expression, resulting in inhibition of FAK/Src signaling, induction of apoptosis and re-sensitization to chemotherapy. Similarly, inhibiting FAK/Src results in chemosensitization. These effects are observed in 3D-cultured cell lines, tumor organoids, chemoresistant xenografts, syngeneic tumors and PDX models. Re-expressing the hypoxia-repressed miR-142-3p, which targets HIF1A, LOX and ITGA5, causes further suppression of the HIF-1?/LOX/ITGA5/FN1 axis. Notably, higher LOX, ITGA5, or FN1, or lower miR-142-3p levels are associated with shorter survival in chemotherapy-treated TNBC patients. These results provide strong pre-clinical rationale for developing and testing LOX inhibitors to overcome chemoresistance in TNBC patients.
Project description:Background:Increasing evidence has indicated the important role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating the development and progression of cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Small nucleolar RNA host gene 22 (SNHG22) is a novel lncRNA that has been identified as tumor-contributor in ovarian carcinoma. However, its function has not been explored in TNBC. Methods:qRT-PCR was used to identify gene expression at mRNA level while western blot was utilized to analyze the protein level. Functional assays were implemented to identify changes on the proliferation, apoptosis and motility of TNBC cells under different conditions. Additionally, mechanistic assays, such as RIP assay, RNA pull down assay and luciferase reporter assay, were applied to assess relationships between molecules. Results:SNHG22 represented a high expression level in TNBC tissues and cells. Besides, SNHG22 silencing restrained the proliferation, migration and invasion of TNBC cells. Furthermore, miR-324-3p that was lowly expressed in TNBC cells was conformed to be sponged by SNHG22. Moreover, upregulated miR-324-3p inhibited cell proliferation and motility in TNBC. Subsequently, we identified that SUDS3, a tumor-facilitator with elevated expression in TNBC, was the downstream target of SNHG22/miR-324-3p axis. Of note, miR-324-3p repression or SUDS3 overexpression could rescue the anti-tumor effect of SNHG22 silencing on the malignant phenotypes of TNBC cells. Conclusion:LncRNA SNHG22 facilitated cell growth and motility in TNBC via sponging miR-324-3p and upregulating SUDS3, highlighting a new promising road for TNBC treatment development.