Project description:BACKGROUND:The success rate of implant-supported prostheses for edentulous patients is relatively high. However, the incidence of biological complications, especially peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, increases yearly after the placement of prostheses. The accumulation of pathogenic bacteria adjacent to a prosthesis is the main cause of biological complications. Titanium, one of the classical materials for implant-supported prostheses, performs well in terms of biocompatibility and ease of maintenance, but is still susceptible to biofilm formation. Zirconia, which has emerged as an appealing substitute, not only has comparable properties, but presents different surface properties that influence the adherence of oral bacteria. However, evidence of a direct effect on oral flora is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of material properties on biofilm formation and composition. METHODS:The proposed study is designed as a 5-year randomized controlled trial. We plan to enroll 44 edentulous (mandible) patients seeking full-arch, fixed, implant-supported prostheses. The participants will be randomly allocated to one of two groups: group 1, in which the participants will receive zirconia frameworks with ceramic veneering, or group 2, in which the participants will receive titanium frameworks with acrylic resin veneering. Ten follow-up examinations will be completed by the end of this 5-year trial. Mucosal conditions around the implants will be recorded every 6?months after restoration. Peri-implant submucosal plaque will be collected at each reexamination, and bacteria flora analysis will be performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology in order to compare differences in microbial diversity between groups. One week before each visit, periodontal maintenance will be arranged. Each participant will receive an X-ray examination every 12?months as a key index to evaluate the marginal bone level around the implants. DISCUSSION:The current study aims to explore the oral microbiology of patients following dental restoration with zirconia ceramic frameworks or titanium frameworks. The features of the microbiota and the mucosal condition around the two different materials will be evaluated and compared to determine whether zirconia is an appropriate material for fixed implant-supported prostheses for edentulous patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ChiCTR2000029470. Registered on 2 February 2020. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx?
Project description:Objectives:1. To provide information about the subgingival microbiota around single tooth implants.2. To assess the subgingival microbial flora around the teeth adjacent to single tooth implants.3. To clinically evaluate the gingival health surrounding the single-tooth implants. Methods:Patients undergoing the single-tooth implant replacements, were selected as subjects for the study. The natural teeth adjacent to implant sites were taken as control sites. Clinically each peri-implant gingival tissue health was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were removed with sterile curette and evaluated for microbial flora, by microscopic examinations. Bacterial cultures of samples studied. The similar procedure was followed for the control sites also. Finally the data collected were statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results:The subgingival microbiota around single tooth implants was cultured and studied. Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species were predominantly found. Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found more frequently around implant sites than control sites. Anaerobic Bacteroides species were found in only one case around the implant site. Conclusions:Prevention and control of bacterial infection in the peri-implant region are among the key factors in determining the long term success or failure of dental implant therapy. The thorough knowledge about the subgingival microbiota around the healthy and diseased peri-implant mucosa is needed to determine the overall outcome of implant therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this report is to present a case of peri-implantitis with successful regeneration. The surface of the affected dental implant was decontaminated with an ultrasonic scaler and treated with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite and enamel matrix derivative. A 52-year-old male was referred for evaluation of a dental implant placed in the mandibular right second premolar area. The radiographic evaluation showed the loss of supporting bone around the dental implant. Bleeding upon probing and suppuration were observed, with the deepest probing depth at 6?mm. The area was firstly treated with a nonsurgical approach. After re-evaluation, a full-thickness flap was elevated. The area was well debrided using various instruments, including curettes and an ultrasonic scaler. The defect area was grafted with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite and enamel matrix derivative. Histopathologic evaluation revealed chronic inflammation with fibrosis and calcification. The evaluation at 2 years and 3 months after surgery showed that the prosthesis was functioning well. Bleeding upon probing and suppuration was not noted, and reduction of probing depth was seen, with the deepest depth at 4?mm. The area showed maintenance of graft material with increased radiopacity around the dental implant. In conclusion, a case of peri-implantitis can be successfully treated with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite and enamel matrix derivative after surface decontamination with an ultrasonic scaler.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the prevalence of peri-implant disease after immediate implant placement and loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This cross-sectional analysis included a total of 47 patients with 64 implants exhibiting a mean loading time of 2 to 10?years (4.23?±?1.7?years). The surgical and prosthetic procedures were standardized in all patients. Peri-implant health and disease was assessed based on the established case definitions. RESULTS:The prevalence of peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis amounted to 38.3%, 57.5%, and 4.2% of the patients, respectively. Mucosal recession of 1?mm was present at 4 (6%) implants. No suppuration, pain, or implant failures were reported. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that reduced keratinized mucosa height was significantly associated with the diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis (OR?=?0.514, P?=?0.0125). CONCLUSION:Immediate implant placement and loading was associated with high success rates at 2 to 10?years.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peri-implantitis (PI) is an inflammatory disease which leads to the destruction of soft and hard tissues around osseointegrated implants. The subgingival microbiota appears to be responsible for peri-implant lesions and although the complexity of the microbiota has been reported in PI, the microbiota responsible for PI has not been identified. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to identify the microbiota in subjects who have PI, clinically healthy implants, and periodontitis-affected teeth using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis to clarify the microbial differences. DESIGN:Three subjects participated in this study. The conditions around the teeth and implants were evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations and diseased implants, clinically healthy implants, and periodontally diseased teeth were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the deepest pockets using sterile paper points. Prevalence and identity of bacteria was analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene clone library technique. RESULTS:A total of 112 different species were identified from 335 clones sequenced. Among the 112 species, 51 (46%) were uncultivated phylotypes, of which 22 were novel phylotypes. The numbers of bacterial species identified at the sites of PI, periodontitis, and periodontally healthy implants were 77, 57, and 12, respectively. Microbiota in PI mainly included Gram-negative species and the composition was more diverse when compared to that of the healthy implant and periodontitis. The phyla Chloroflexi, Tenericutes, and Synergistetes were only detected at PI sites, as were Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, and Solobacterium moorei. Low levels of periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were seen in peri-implant lesions. CONCLUSIONS:The biofilm in PI showed a more complex microbiota when compared to periodontitis and periodontally healthy teeth, and it was mainly composed of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Common periodontopathic bacteria showed low prevalence, and several bacteria were identified as candidate pathogens in PI.
Project description:The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between biofilm and peri-implant disease, with an emphasis on the types of implant abutment surfaces. Individuals with periodontal disease typically have a large amount of pathogenic microorganisms in the periodontal pocket. If the individuals lose their teeth, these microorganisms remain viable inside the mouth and can directly influence peri-implant microbiota. Metal implants offer a suitable solution, but similarly, these remaining bacteria can adhere on abutment implant surfaces, induce peri-implantitis causing potential destruction of the alveolar bone near to the implant threads and cause the subsequent loss of the implant. Studies have demonstrated differences in biofilm formation on dental materials and these variations can be associated with both physical and chemical characteristics of the surfaces. In the case of partially edentulous patients affected by periodontal disease, the ideal type of implant abutments utilized should be one that adheres the least or negligible amounts of periodontopathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is of clinically relevance to know how the bacteria behave on different types of surfaces in order to develop new materials and/or new types of treatment surfaces, which will reduce or inhibit adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms, and, thus, restrict the use of the abutments with indication propensity for bacterial adhesion.
Project description:The impact of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria on peri-implant mucosa is not well understood, despite the high prevalence of peri-implant infections. Hence, we investigated responses of the peri-implant mucosa to Streptococcus oralis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilms using a novel in vitro peri-implant mucosa-biofilm model. Our 3D model combined three components, organotypic oral mucosa, implant material, and oral biofilm, with structural assembly close to native situation. S. oralis induced a protective stress response in the peri-implant mucosa through upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP70) genes. Attenuated inflammatory response was indicated by reduced cytokine levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2). The inflammatory balance was preserved through increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). A. actinomycetemcomitans induced downregulation of genes important for cell survival and host inflammatory response. The reduced cytokine levels of chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL8, and CCL2 also indicated a diminished inflammatory response. The induced immune balance by S. oralis may support oral health, whereas the reduced inflammatory response to A. actinomycetemcomitans may provide colonisation advantage and facilitate later tissue invasion. The comprehensive characterisation of peri-implant mucosa-biofilm interactions using our 3D model can provide new knowledge to improve strategies for prevention and therapy of peri-implant disease.
Project description:This study constructs a standard in vitro laser treatment platform with dental implant thread surface on bacterial adhesion for peri-implantitis at different tooth positions. The standard clinical adult tooth jaw model was scanned to construct the digital model with 6 mm bone loss depth on behalf of serious peri-implantitis at the incisor, first premolar, and first molar. A cylindrical suite connected to the implant and each tooth root in the jaw model was designed as one experimental unit set to allow the suite to be replaced for individual bacterial adhesion. The digital peri-implantitis and suite models were exported to fulfill the physical model using ABS material in a 3D printer. A 3 mm diameter specimen implant on bacterial adhesion against Escherichia coli was performed for gram-negative bacteria. An Er:YAG laser, working with a chisel type glass tip, was moved from the buccal across the implant thread to the lingual for about 30 seconds per sample to verify the in vitro laser treatment platform. The result showed that the sterilization rate can reach 99.3% and the jaw model was not damaged after laser irradiation testing. This study concluded that using integrated image processing, reverse engineering, CAD system, and a 3D printer to construct a peri-implantitis model replacing the implant on bacterial adhesion and acceptable sterilization rate proved the feasibility of the proposed laser treatment platform.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The etiology of peri-implantitis is multifactorial, and it is not directly linked to the quantitative amount of plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subgingival microbiota around implants supporting full-arch restorations on clinical indexes of peri-implant health. METHOD:47 patients (54 full-arch fixed rehabilitations) were included. Based on the highest value of probing depth (PD), 47 implants (in the test arch), 40 natural teeth and 7 implants (in the antagonist arch) were selected for microbiological sampling (traditional PCR and real-time PCR). Periodontal indexes (plaque index, PlI; probing depth, PD; bleeding on probing, BOP; peri-implant suppuration, PS) and marginal bone loss were also recorded. RESULTS:Despite abundant plaque accumulation, the peri-implant parameters were within normal limits. No statistical difference was found in the microbial population around the test implants and antagonist natural teeth. Treponema denticola was present in a significantly higher amount around implants with increased PlI. Implants with increased BOP showed a significant increase in Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. A significantly higher presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia was identified around the implants affected by peri-implantitis and in smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Peri-implantitis is characterized by a complex and polymicrobial disease, that might be influenced by the qualitative profile of plaque. Smoking might also favor implant biological complications in full-arch fixed prosthesis.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the abutment characteristics on peri-implant tissue health and to identify the most suitable material and surface characteristics.<h4>Methods</h4>A protocol was developed aimed to answer the following focused question: "Which is the effect of the modification of the abutment design in regard to the maintenance of the peri-implant soft tissue health?" Further subanalysis aimed to investigate the impact of the abutment material, macroscopic design, surface topography and surface manipulation. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 6 months after implant loading were considered as inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed whenever possible.<h4>Results</h4>Nineteen final publications from thirteen investigations were included. The results from the meta-analysis indicated that zirconia abutments (Zi) experienced less increase in BOP values over time [n = 3; WMD = -26.96; 95% CI (-45.00; -8.92); p = .003] and less plaque accumulation [n = 1; MD = -20.00; 95% CI (-41.47; 1.47); p = .068] when compared with titanium abutments (Ti). Bone loss was influenced by the method of abutment decontamination [n = 1; MD = -0.44; 95% CI (-0.65; -0.23); p < .001]. The rest of the studied outcomes did not show statistically significant differences.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The macroscopic design, the surface topography and the manipulation of the implant abutment did not have a significant influence on peri-implant inflammation. In contrast, the abutment material demonstrated increased BOP values over time for Ti when compared to Zi abutments.