Project description:BACKGROUND:Massive forest decline has been observed almost everywhere as a result of negative anthropogenic and climatic effects, which can interact with pests, fungi and other phytopathogens and aggravate their effects. Climatic changes can weaken trees and make fungi, such as Armillaria more destructive. Armillaria borealis (Marxm. & Korhonen) is a fungus from the Physalacriaceae family (Basidiomycota) widely distributed in Eurasia, including Siberia and the Far East. Species from this genus cause the root white rot disease that weakens and often kills woody plants. However, little is known about ecological behavior and genetics of A. borealis. According to field research data, A. borealis is less pathogenic than A. ostoyae, and its aggressive behavior is quite rare. Mainly A. borealis behaves as a secondary pathogen killing trees already weakened by other factors. However, changing environment might cause unpredictable effects in fungus behavior. RESULTS:The de novo genome assembly and annotation were performed for the A. borealis species for the first time and presented in this study. The A. borealis genome assembly contained ~?68 Mbp and was comparable with ~?60 and ~?79.5 Mbp for the A. ostoyae and A. mellea genomes, respectively. The N50 for contigs equaled 50,544?bp. Functional annotation analysis revealed 21,969 protein coding genes and provided data for further comparative analysis. Repetitive sequences were also identified. The main focus for further study and comparative analysis will be on the enzymes and regulatory factors associated with pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS:Pathogenic fungi such as Armillaria are currently one of the main problems in forest conservation. A comprehensive study of these species and their pathogenicity is of great importance and needs good genomic resources. The assembled genome of A. borealis presented in this study is of sufficiently good quality for further detailed comparative study on the composition of enzymes in other Armillaria species. There is also a fundamental problem with the identification and classification of species of the Armillaria genus, where the study of repetitive sequences in the genomes of basidiomycetes and their comparative analysis will help us identify more accurately taxonomy of these species and reveal their evolutionary relationships.
Project description:The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4T that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62. The complete genome of P. borealis PX4T consists of a 7.5 Mb chromosome and two plasmids, 112 and 43 kb in size. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed 5802 potential protein-coding genes of which 2775 could be functionally assigned. The genes encoding metabolic pathways common for chemo-organotrophic bacteria, such as glycolysis, citrate cycle, pentose-phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were identified. Several genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan as well as N-methylated ornithine lipids were present in the genome of P. borealis PX4T. A total of 26 giant genes with a size >5 kb were detected. The genome encodes a wide repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 83 glycosyltransferases (GT) affiliated with 21 and 13 CAZy families, respectively. The most-represented families are GH5, GH13, GH57, GT2, GT4, and GT83. The experimentally determined carbohydrate utilization pattern agrees well with the genome-predicted capabilities. The CAZyme repertoire in P. borealis PX4T is highly similar to that in the uncharacterized planctomycete SH-PL62 and S. acidiphila DSM 18658T, but different to that in the thermophile I. pallida IS1BT. The latter strain has a strongly reduced CAZyme content. In P. borealis PX4T, many of its CAZyme genes are organized in clusters. Contrary to most other members of the order Planctomycetales, all four analyzed Isosphaeraceae planctomycetes have plasmids in numbers varying from one to four. The plasmids from P. borealis PX4T display synteny to plasmids from other family members, providing evidence for their common evolutionary origin.
Project description:<i>Pandalus borealis</i> is an important indicator species to study the state of the Arctic ecosystem. The mitochondrial genome of <i>P. borealis</i> is 15,956?bp in length and encodes 13 protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree of eleven shrimps revealed that <i>P. borealis</i> belonged to <i>Pandalidae</i> family and was closely related to <i>C. crassicornis.</i> This mitogenome will be of significance to study the Arctic ecosystem state and perform the resource protection of this species.
Project description:Here we report the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis, a member of the order Helotiales of Ascomycetes. The 203,051 bp long mtDNA of S. borealis represents one of the largest sequenced fungal mt genomes. The large size is mostly determined by the presence of mobile genetic elements, which include 61 introns. Introns contain a total of 125,394 bp, are scattered throughout the genome, and are found in 12 protein-coding genes and in the ribosomal RNA genes. Most introns contain complete or truncated ORFs that are related to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Integrations of mobile elements are also evidenced by the presence of two regions similar to fragments of inverton-like plasmids. Although duplications of some short genome regions, resulting in the appearance of truncated extra copies of genes, did occur, we found no evidences of extensive accumulation of repeat sequences accounting for mitochondrial genome size expansion in some other fungi. Comparisons of mtDNA of S. borealis with other members of the order Helotiales reveal considerable gene order conservation and a dynamic pattern of intron acquisition and loss during evolution. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution and size expansion of the S. borealis mt genome.
Project description:<i>Linnaea borealis</i> L. is a creeping shrub which grows about 5-10?cm high and is a rare clonal plant. <i>Linnaea</i> is a monotypic genus. Here, we release and detail the complete chloroplast genome sequences of <i>L. borealis</i>, whose size is 161,576?bp, containing a large single copy region (LSC) of 85,609?bp and a single copy region (SSC) of 46,694?bp which typically separates by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 29,210?bp. The amount of the overall genes is 136, which includes 37 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes, and 91 protein-coding genes. The content of the G/C in whole plastome is 61.74% while the G/C content of the LSC, SSC, and IR region are 36.58%, 38.86%, and 42.25%, respectively. The complete cp genome sequences of <i>L. borealis</i> will be a useful resource to the phylogenetics study in family Caprifoliaceae.
Project description:Antarctic lichens have been used as indicators of climate change for decades, but only a few species have been studied. We assessed the photosynthetic performance of the fruticose lichen Cladonia borealis under natural and laboratory conditions using the PAM fluorescence system. Compared to that of sun-adapted Usnea sp., the photosynthetic performance of C. borealis exhibits shade-adapted lichen features, and its chlorophyll fluorescence does not occur during dry days without rain. To understand its desiccation-rehydration responses, we measured changes in the PSII photochemistry in C. borealis under the average light intensity of dawn light and daylight and the desiccating conditions of its natural microclimate. Interestingly, samples under daylight and rapid-desiccation conditions showed a delayed reduction in Fv'/Fm' and rETRmax, and an increase in Y(II) and Y(NPQ) levels. These results suggest that the photoprotective mechanism of C. borealis depends on sunlight and becomes more efficient with improved desiccation tolerance. Amplicon sequencing revealed that the major photobiont of C. borealis was Asterochloris irregularis, which has not been reported in Antarctica before. Collectively, these results from both field and laboratory could provide a better understanding of specific ecophysiological responses of shade-adapted lichens in the Antarctic region.
Project description:Egg extracts of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis have provided a cell-free system instrumental in elucidating events of the cell cycle, including mechanisms of spindle assembly. Comparison with extracts from the diploid Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, which is smaller at the organism, cellular and subcellular levels, has enabled the identification of spindle size scaling factors. We set out to characterize the Marsabit clawed frog, Xenopus borealis, which is intermediate in size between the two species, but more recently diverged in evolution from X. laevis than X. tropicalis. X. borealis eggs were slightly smaller than those of X. laevis, and slightly smaller spindles were assembled in egg extracts. Interestingly, microtubule distribution across the length of the X. borealis spindles differed from both X. laevis and X. tropicalis. Extract mixing experiments revealed common scaling phenomena among Xenopus species, while characterization of spindle factors katanin, TPX2, and Ran indicate that X. borealis spindles possess both X. laevis and X. tropicalis features. Thus, X. borealis egg extract provides a third in vitro system to investigate interspecies scaling and spindle morphometric variation.