Project description:BACKGROUND:Cow manure is not only an agricultural waste, but also an organic fertilizer resource. The application of organic fertilizer is a feasible practice to mitigate the soil degradation caused by overuse of chemical fertilizers, which can affect the bacterial diversity and community composition in soils. However, to our knowledge, the information about the soil bacterial diversity and composition in tea plantation applied with cow manure fertilization was limited. In this study, we performed one field trial to research the response of the soil bacterial community to cow manure fertilization compared with urea fertilization using the high-throughput sequencing technique of 16S rRNA genes, and analyzed the relationship between the soil bacterial community and soil characteristics during different tea-picking seasons using the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. RESULTS:The results showed that the soil bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria across all tea-picking seasons. Therein, there were significant differences of bacterial communities in soils with cow manure fertilization (CMF) and urea fertilization (UF) in three seasons: the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in CMF was significantly higher than that in UF and CK in spring, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in CMF was significantly higher than that in UF and CK in autumn. So, the distribution of the dominant phyla was mainly affected by cow manure fertilization. The diversity of bacterial communities in soils with cow manure fertilization was higher than that in soils with urea fertilization, and was the highest in summer. Moreover, soil pH, OM and AK were important environmental properties affecting the soil bacterial community structure in tea plantation. CONCLUSIONS:Although different fertilizers and seasons affect the diversity and structure of soil microorganisms, the application of cow manure can not only improve the diversity of soil bacteria, but also effectively regulate the structure of soil bacterial community in tea plantation. So, cow manure fertilization is more suitable for tea plantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Different mulches have variable effects on soil physicochemical characteristics, bacterial and fungal communities and ecosystem functions. However, the information about soil microbial diversity, community structure and ecosystem function in tea plantation under different mulching patterns was limited. In this study, we investigated bacterial and fungal communities of tea plantation soils under polyethylene film and peanut hull mulching using high-throughput 16S rRNA and ITS rDNA gene Illumina sequencing. RESULTS:The results showed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi, and the dominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota and Basidiomycota in all samples, but different mulching patterns affected the distribution of microbial communities. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Nitrospirae in peanut hull mulching soils (3.24%) was significantly higher than that in polyethylene film mulching soils (1.21%) in bacterial communities, and the relative abundances of Mortierellomycota and Basidiomycota in peanut hull mulching soils (33.72, 21.93%) was significantly higher than that in polyethylene film mulching soils (14.88, 6.53%) in fungal communities. Peanut hull mulching increased the diversity of fungal communities in 0-20?cm soils and the diversity of bacterial communities in 20-40?cm soils. At the microbial functional level, there was an enrichment of bacterial functional features, including amino acid transport and metabolism and energy production and conversion, and there was an enrichment of fungal functional features, including undefined saprotrophs, plant pathogens and soils aprotrophs. CONCLUSIONS:Unique distributions of bacterial and fungal communities were observed in soils under organic mulching. Thus, we believe that the organic mulching has a positive regulatory effect on the soil bacterial and fungal communities and ecosystem functions, and so, is more suitable for tea plantation.
Project description:The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1), 29-year-old (PF2), and 53-year-old (PF3), on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF) stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL) was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.
Project description:Changes in soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for the assessment of ecological restoration in Chinese plantations, have never been studied in the "Three North Shelterbelt" project in the semi-arid areas. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to investigate the soil bacterial community diversity, structure, and functional characteristics in three plantation forests, including Populus × canadensis Moench (PC), Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (PS), and Pinus tabuliformis (PT). In addition, soil environment factors were measured. There were distinct differences in soil characteristics among different plantation forests. Compared to PS and PT, PC had a higher soil pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and available P, as well as a lower C/N ratio. Furthermore, afforestation with different tree species significantly altered the abundance of Proteobacteria, and Chloroflexi in the soil, and its influence on the bacterial diversity indices. The bacterial community compositions and functional groups related to C and N cycling from PS, and PT were grouped tightly, indicating that the soil bacterial phylogenetic distance of PS and PT were closer than that between PS plus PT and PC. Our results implied that the soil characteristics, as well as the diversity, compositions and functions related to C and N cycling of soil bacterial community obviously differed from the following afforestation, especially between PC and PS plus PT, which in turn enormously established the correlation between the soil microbial community characteristics and the afforestation tree species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Land use changes and related land management practices significantly alter soil physicochemical properties; however, their effects on the soil microbial community structure are still unclear. In this study, we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis to determine the fungal and bacterial community composition in soils from different land use areas in the Ethiopian highlands. Soil samples were collected from five areas with different land uses, natural forest, eucalyptus plantation, exclosure, grassland and cropland, which had all historically been natural forest. RESULTS:Our results showed a significant shift in the soil bacterial and fungal community composition in response to land use change. We also identified soil physicochemical factors corresponding to the changes in bacterial and fungal communities. Although most soil attributes, including soil organic carbon, total soil nitrogen, labile P, soil pH and soil aggregate stability, were related to the change in bacterial community composition, the total soil nitrogen and soil organic carbon had the strongest relationships. The change in fungal community composition was correlated with soil nutrients, organic carbon, soil nitrogen and particularly the labile P concentration. CONCLUSIONS:The fungal community composition was likely affected by the alteration of vegetation cover in response to land use change, whereas the bacterial communities were mainly sensitive to changes in soil attributes. The study highlights the higher sensitivity of fungal communities than bacterial communities to land use changes.
Project description:In conventional tea plantations, a large amount of pruned material returns to the soil surface, putting a high quantity of polyphenols into the soil. The accumulation of active allelochemicals in the tea rhizosphere and subsequent shift in beneficial microbes may be the cause of acidification, soil sickness, and regeneration problem, which may be attributed to hindrance of plant growth, development, and low yield in long-term monoculture tea plantation. However, the role of pruning leaf litter in soil sickness under consecutive tea monoculture is unclear. Here, we investigated soil samples taken from conventional tea gardens of different ages (2, 15, and 30 years) and under the effect of regular pruning. Different approaches including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the leaf litter, metagenomic study of root-associated bacterial communities, and <i>in vitro</i> interaction of polyphenols with selected bacteria were applied to understand the effect of leaf litter-derived polyphenols on the composition and structure of the tea rhizosphere microbial community. Our results indicated that each pruning practice returns a large amount of leaf litter to each tea garden. LC-MS results showed that leaf litter leads to the accumulation of various allelochemicals in the tea rhizosphere, including <i>epigallocatechin gallate</i>, <i>epigallocatechin</i>, <i>epicatechin gallate</i>, <i>catechin</i>, and <i>epicatechin</i> with increasing age of the tea plantation. Meanwhile, in the tea garden grown consecutively for 30 years (30-Y), the phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities increased significantly. Pyrosequencing identified <i>Burkholderia</i> and <i>Pseudomonas</i> as the dominant genera, while plant growth-promoting bacteria, especially <i>Bacillus</i>, <i>Prevotella</i>, and <i>Sphingomonas</i>, were significantly reduced in the long-term tea plantation. The qPCR results of 30-Y soil confirmed that the copy numbers of bacterial genes per gram of the rhizosphere soil were significantly reduced, while that of <i>Pseudomonas</i> increased significantly. <i>In vitro</i> study showed that the growth of catechin-degrading bacteria (e.g., <i>Pseudomonas</i>) increased and plant-promoting bacteria (e.g., <i>Bacillus</i>) decreased significantly with increasing concentration of these allelochemicals. Furthermore, <i>in vitro</i> interaction showed a 0.36-fold decrease in the pH of the broth after 72 h with the catechin degradation. In summary, the increase of <i>Pseudomonas</i> and <i>Burkholderia</i> in the 30-Y garden was found to be associated with the accumulation of catechin substrates. In response to the long-term monoculture of tea, the variable soil pH along with the litter distribution negatively affect the population of plant growth-promoting bacteria (e.g., <i>Sphingomonas</i>, <i>Bacillus</i>, and <i>Prevotella</i>). Current research suggests that the removal of pruned branches from tea gardens can prevent soil sickness and may lead to sustainable tea production.
Project description:Soil microbes have critical influence on the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, yet the magnitude and direction to which management practices affect the soil microbial community remain unclear. This work aimed to examine the impacts of three farming systems, conventional grain cropping (CON), organic grain cropping (ORG), and grain cropping-pasture rotation (ICL), on the soil microbial community structure and putative gene abundances of N transformations using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing approaches. Two additional systems, a forest plantation (PF) and an abandoned agricultural field subject to natural succession (SUC), were also included for better assessment of the soil microbial community in terms of variation scale and regulatory importance of management intensity vs. plant type. Farming systems significantly affected the biodiversity of soil fungi but not bacteria, with Shannon index being the lowest in ORG. Bacterial and fungal communities in three cropping systems clustered and separated from those in PF and SUC, suggesting that management practices as such played minor roles in shaping the soil microbial community compared to plant type (i.e., woody vs. herbaceous plants). However, management practices prominently regulated habitat-specific taxa. Lecanoromycetes, a class of Ascomycota accounted for ?10% of total fungal population in ORG, but almost nil in the other four systems. ORG also enriched bacteria belonging to the phyla, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Gemmatimonadetes. Further, PICRUSt predicted that N-cycle community compositions varied with farming systems; compared to CON, ORG and ICL were more divergent from PF and SUC. Soil pH, together with inorganic N, extractable organic C, and soil organic C:N ratio explained < 50% of the total variations in both bacterial and fungal communities. Our data indicates that while moderately affecting the overall structure of the soil microbial community, management practices, particularly fertilization and the source of N (synthetic vs. organic), were important in regulating the presence and abundance of habitat-specific taxa.
Project description:Vegetation restoration has been widely used in karst rocky desertification (KRD) areas of southwestern China, but the response of microbial community to revegetation has not been well characterized. We investigated the diversity, structure, and co-occurrence patterns of bacterial communities in soils of five vegetation types (grassland, shrubbery, secondary forest, pure plantation and mixed plantation) in KRD area using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis revealed that 15 bacterial community samples were clustered into five groups that corresponded very well to the five vegetation types. Shannon diversity was positively correlated with pH and Ca2+ content but negatively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, Ca2+ content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and soil moisture jointly influenced bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed non-random assembly patterns of bacterial composition in the soils. Bryobacter, GR-WP33-30, and Rhizomicrobium were identified as keystone genera in co-occurrence network. These results indicate that diverse soil physicochemical properties and potential interactions among taxa during vegetation restoration may jointly affect the bacterial community structure in KRD regions.
Project description:Pennisetum sinese Roxb (P. sinese) is an efficient and economic energy crop for its high productivity, and has been well studied in its application in phytoremediation and fodder production. However, little is known about how P. sinese plantation and fermented manures of P. sinese-feed livestock affect the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities. In this study, 16S rRNA/ITS1 gene-based Illumina Miseq sequencing was employed to compare the bacterial and fungal community structure among soils that had been subjected to uncultivated control (CK), 2-year P. sinese plantation (P), and P. sinese plantation combined with the use of organic manures (P-OM) in a "P. sinese-breeding industry" ecological agriculture farm. The results found microbial communities were altered by P. sinese plantation and fertilization. The P. sinese plantation resulted in increased Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes abundance. Comparatively, significant increased abundance of Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, and Euryarchaeota, and genes related with nitrogen and carbon metabolic pathways based on PICRUSt prediction was observed in P-OM soil. Fungal compositions suggested a markedly increased abundance of Ascomycota in P soil. Potential organic matter decomposers Candida, Thermoascus, and Aspergillus were enriched in P soil, indicating the enhanced role of fungi in litter decomposition. Redundancy analysis suggested that soil properties (NH4+-N, total nitrogen, organic matter content, and soil water content) significantly correlated with the changes of microbial compositions (P?<?0.05). These results highlight the divergence of microbial communities occurs during P. sinese-based plantation, implying functional diversification of soil ecosystem in P. sinese fields.
Project description:The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks.