Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of short-term antibiotic treatment in early life on both early microbial colonization of the gut and functional development of intestinal tissue. From both control and antibiotic treated birds intestinal content samples were taken for microbiota analyzes and intestinal tissue samples were extracted for gene expression analyzes, both at three subsequent time-points (days 1, 5, and 14). Overall design: 1-day-old chicks (Cobb500) were housed in a floor pen system in which the chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water. At day 1, 2 groups were created; control and antibiotic treated (amoxicillin, 24h in drinking water). At days 1, 80 birds of the control group were sacrificed for tissue sampling. At days 5 and 14, per time-point 80 birds of the control group and 80 birds of the antibiotic treated group were sacrificed for tissue sampling. Subsequently, samples from these 80 birds were pooled in 8 pools of ten birds.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of genotypic variation on both early microbial colonization of the gut and functional development of intestinal tissue. From two genetically diverse chicken lines intestinal content samples were taken for microbiota analyzes and intestinal tissue samples were extracted for gene expression analyzes, both at three subsequent time-points (days 0, 4, and 16). 1-day-old chicks (Lines X and Y) were housed in a floor pen system in which the chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water. At days 0, 4 and 16, 80 birds of each line X and line Y were sacrificed for tissue sampling, in total 240 birds per line. Subsequently, samples from these 80 birds were pooled in 8 pools of ten birds.
Project description:In the present trial, 160 heavy-size male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (control feed [C] and 5, 10 and 15% TM meal inclusion, respectively, with 5 replicate pens/treatment and 8 birds/pen) to evaluate the influence of TM meal on intestinal microbiota and mucin composition. The broiler chickens fed TM-based diets showed higher beta diversity of their cecal microbiota in comparison with the C birds (p < 0.001). A significant decrease of the relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum and lower Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratios (False Discovery Rate [FDR] < 0.05) were also identified in TM15 broiler chickens when compared to the C group. Furthermore, the TM birds showed decreased relative abundance of Clostridium, Coprococcus, L-Ruminococcus and Ruminococcus genera (FDR < 0.05). In relation to the gut mucin composition, higher mucin staining intensity was detected in the intestinal crypts of TM5 birds in comparison with the other TM groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary TM meal inclusion negatively influenced the cecal microbiota of heavy-size broiler chickens in terms of partial alteration of the physiological microbial population and reduction of the potential beneficial bacteria (with slightly more pronounced effects when testing the 10-15% inclusion levels).
Project description:Background:The relationship between diet and intestinal microbiota and mucin composition appears to be fundamental for poultry gut health. The effects of insect meal (whose role as alternative feed ingredient is now well recognized) on gut microbiota and mucin composition have recently been reported in Tenebrio molitor-fed free-range and broiler chickens, but no data are currently available for Hermetia illucens (HI)-fed broilers. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary HI meal inclusion on cecal microbiota and intestinal mucin composition of broiler chickens. Results:A total of 256 male broiler chickens were allotted to 4 dietary treatments (control diet [C] and 5%, 10% and 15% HI meal inclusion, with 8 replicate pens/treatment and 8 birds/pen) and slaughtered at 35?d of age (2 animals/pen, 16 birds/diet). The cecal microbiota assessment by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed lower alpha diversity in HI15 chickens (Shannon, P?<?0.05) and higher beta diversity (Adonis and ANOSIM, P?<?0.001) in birds fed HI diets than C. Furthermore, HI15 birds displayed significant increase of the relative abundance of Proteobacteria phylum (False Discovery Rate [FDR]?<? 0.05) when compared to HI10. L-Ruminococcus (Ruminococcus from Lachnospiraceae family), Faecalibacterium, Blautia and Clostridium genera were found to be characteristic of HI5 cecal microbiota (FDR?<?0.05), while broiler chickens fed HI10 and HI15 diets were characterized (FDR?<?0.05) by Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus (HI10) and Bacteroides, Roseburia and Helicobacter genera (HI15). Periodic-acid Schiff, Alcian Blue pH?2.5 and high iron diamine staining on small and large intestine also demonstrated lower mucin staining intensity in the intestinal villi of HI10 and HI15 birds than C (P?<?0.05). Conclusions:Dietary HI meal utilization at low inclusion levels (i.e., 5%) positively influenced either the cecal microbiota or the gut mucin dynamics in terms of selection of potentially beneficial bacteria and increase in villi mucins. However, high inclusion levels (in particular the 15%) may have a negative influence in terms of partial reduction of microbial complexity, reduction of potentially beneficial bacteria, selection of bacteria with mucolytic activity and decrease in villi mucins.
Project description:Cross-talk between the gut microbiota and neurochemicals affects health and well-being of animals. However, little is known about this interaction in chickens despite their importance in food production. Probiotics and live Salmonella vaccines are microbial products commonly given orally to layer pullets to improve health and ensure food safety. This study’s objective was to determine how these oral treatments, individually or in combination, would impact the gut environment of chickens. White Leghorn chicks were either non-treated (CON) or orally given probiotics (PRO), a recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV; VAX), or both (P+V). Birds were fed with probiotics daily beginning at 1-day-old and orally immunized with RASV at 4-days-old and boosted 2 weeks post-primary vaccination. At 5 weeks, ceca content, ceca tissues, and small intestinal scrapings (SISs) were collected from ten birds/group post-euthanasia for analyses. Catecholamine, but not serotonergic, metabolism was affected by treatments. Dopamine metabolism, indicated by L-DOPA and DOPAC levels, were increased in P+V birds versus CON and PRO birds. Based on 16S sequencing, beta diversity was more similar among vaccinated birds versus birds given probiotics, suggesting live Salmonella vaccination has a major selective pressure on microbial diversity. Abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila and Enterobacteriaceae positively correlated with levels of tyrosine and norepinephrine, respectively. Both enumeration and 16S sequencing, determined that PRO exhibited the greatest levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the ceca and feces, which was associated with greater IgA production against E. coli virulence factors as tested by ELISA. In summary, we demonstrate that using probiotics alone versus in combination with a live vaccine has major implications in catecholamine production and the microbiota of layer pullets. Additionally, unique correlations between changes in some neurochemicals and specific bacteria have been shown.
Project description:Intestinal bacterial communities form an integral component of the organism. Many factors influence gut bacterial community composition and diversity, including diet, environment and seasonality. During seasonal migration, birds use many habitats and food resources, which may influence their intestinal bacterial community structure. Hooded crane (Grus monacha) is a migrant waterbird that traverses long distances and occupies varied habitats. In this study, we investigated the diversity and differences in intestinal bacterial communities of hooded cranes over the migratory seasons. Fecal samples from hooded cranes were collected at a stopover site in two seasons (spring and fall) in Lindian, China, and at a wintering ground in Shengjin Lake, China. We analyzed bacterial communities from the fecal samples using high throughput sequencing (Illumina Mi-seq). Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla across all samples. The intestinal bacterial alpha-diversity of hooded cranes in winter was significantly higher than in fall and spring. The bacterial community composition significantly differed across the three seasons (ANOSIM, P = 0.001), suggesting that seasonal fluctuations may regulate the gut bacterial community composition of migratory birds. This study provides baseline information on the seasonal dynamics of intestinal bacterial community structure in migratory hooded cranes.
Project description:Worldwide Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease. Contamination of chicken meat with digesta from C. jejuni-positive birds during slaughter and processing is a key route of transmission to humans through the food chain. Colonization of chickens with C. jejuni elicits host innate immune responses that may be modulated by dietary additives to provide a reduction in the number of campylobacters colonizing the gastrointestinal tract and thereby reduce the likelihood of human exposure to an infectious dose. Here we report the effects of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on broiler chickens colonized with C. jejuni when challenged at either an early stage in development at 6 days of age or 20 days old when campylobacters are frequently detected in commercial flocks. GOS-fed birds had increased growth performance, but the levels of C. jejuni colonizing the cecal pouches were unchanged irrespective of the age of challenge. Dietary GOS modulated the immune response to C. jejuni by increasing cytokine IL-17A expression at colonization. Correspondingly, reduced diversity of the cecal microbiota was associated with Campylobacter colonization in GOS-fed birds. In birds challenged at 6 days-old the reduction in microbial diversity was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of Escherichia spp. Whilst immuno-modulation of the Th17 pro-inflammatory response did not prevent C. jejuni colonization of the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, the study highlights the potential for combinations of prebiotics, and specific competitors (synbiotics) to engage with the host innate immunity to reduce pathogen burdens.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained much attention in recent years due to their biomedical applications, especially as antimicrobial agents. AgNP may be used in poultry production as an alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoter. However, little is known about the impact of oral administration of AgNP on the gut microbiota and the immune system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AgNP on growth, hematological and immunological profile as well as intestinal microbial composition in broilers challenged with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni).AgNP did not affect the intestinal microbial profile of birds. The body weight gain and the relative weights of bursa and spleen were reduced when supplemented with AgNP. There was no difference with respect to packed cell volume. However, the plasma concentrations of IgG and IgM were lower in birds receiving AgNP compared to the non-supplemented control group. The expression of TNF-? and NF-kB at mRNA level was significantly higher in birds receiving AgNP.The application of AgNP via the drinking water in the concentration of 50 ppm reduced broiler growth, impaired immune functions and had no antibacterial effect on different intestinal bacterial groups, which may limit the applicability of AgNP against C. jejuni in broiler chickens.
Project description:Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), though mechanisms remain poorly defined and treatment involves non-specific antibiotics. Here we show that SIBO based on duodenal aspirate. culture reflects an overgrowth of anaerobes, does not correspond with patient symptoms, and may be a result of dietary preferences. Small intestinal microbial composition, on the other hand, is significantly altered in symptomatic patients and does not correspond with aspirate culture results. In a pilot interventional study we found that switching from a high fiber diet to a low fiber, high simple sugar diet triggered FGID-related symptoms and decreased small-intestinal microbial diversity and small-intestinal permeability. Our findings demonstrate that characterizing small intestinal microbiomes in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms may allow a more targeted antibacterial or a diet-based approach to treatment. Overall design: A host duodenal RNA sequencing study in conjuction with a microbial analysis of small bowel aspirates following dietary intervention to reduce fiber intake for 1 week. Aspirates were collected during research endoscopy and submtttied for for 16S microbial identification (european