Project description:Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena, the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp) and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher number of insertion sequence (IS) elements compared to Nodularia spumigena CENA596 isolated from a shrimp production pond in Brazil. Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 proliferated similarly at three tested salinities, whereas the lack of salt inhibited its growth and triggered transcriptome remodeling, including the up-regulation of five sigma factors and the down-regulation of two other sigma factors, one of which is specific for strain UHCC 0039. Down-regulated genes additionally included a large genetic region for the synthesis of two yet unidentified natural products. Our results indicate a remarkable plasticity of the Nodularia salinity acclimation, and thus salinity strongly impacts the intensity and distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.
Project description:The Baltic Sea is a shallow basin of brackish water in which the spatial salinity gradient is one of the most important factors contributing to species distribution. The Baltic Sea is infamous for its annual cyanobacterial blooms comprised of Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon spp., and Dolichospermum spp. that cause harm, especially for recreational users. To broaden our knowledge of the cyanobacterial adaptation strategies for brackish water environments, we sequenced the entire genome of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315, a species occurring not only in freshwater environments but also in brackish water. Comparative genomics analyses revealed a close association with Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0090 isolated from a lake in Finland. The genome closure of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315 unraveled a mixture of two subtypes in the original culture, and subtypes exhibited distinct buoyancy phenotypes. Salinity less than 3 g L-1 NaCl enabled proper growth of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315, whereas growth was arrested at moderate salinity (6 g L-1 NaCl). The concentrations of toxins, microcystins, increased at moderate salinity, whereas RNA sequencing data implied that Dolichospermum remodeled its primary metabolism in unfavorable high salinity. Based on our results, the predicted salinity decrease in the Baltic Sea may favor toxic blooms of Dolichospermum spp.
Project description:Nodularia spumigena is a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium that forms toxic blooms in the Baltic Sea each summer and the availability of phosphorous is an important factor limiting the formation of these blooms. Bioinformatic analysis identified a phosphonate degrading (phn) gene cluster in the genome of N. spumigena suggesting that this bacterium may use phosphonates as a phosphorus source. Our results show that strains of N. spumigena could grow in medium containing methylphosphonic acid (MPn) as the sole source of phosphorous and released methane when growing in medium containing MPn. We analyzed the total transcriptomes of N. spumigena UHCC 0039 grown using MPn and compared them with cultures growing in Pi-replete medium. The phnJ, phosphonate lyase gene, was upregulated when MPn was the sole source of phosphorus, suggesting that the expression of this gene could be used to indicate the presence of bioavailable phosphonates. Otherwise, growth on MPn resulted in only a minor reconstruction of the transcriptome and enabled good growth. However, N. spumigena strains were not able to utilize any of the anthropogenic phosphonates tested. The phosphonate utilizing pathway may offer N. spumigena a competitive advantage in the Pi-limited cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea.
Project description:Mitochondrial genome sequences were first determined and analyzed for a Korean endemic freshwater mussel <i>Nodularia breviconcha</i> (synonym <i>Nodularia douglasiae sinuolatus</i>; Unionidae, Unionida, Bivalvia). The complete mitochondrial genome was 15,741?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. The overall GC content of mitochondrial genome for <i>N. breviconcha</i> was 34.3%. Phylogenetic analysis of 18 species within the family Unionidae suggested that <i>Nodularia douglasiae</i> is the most closely related to <i>N. breviconcha</i>. Our study will provide baseline, but important information for future research on ecological and genetic/genomic characteristics of this species.
Project description:Swinholides are 42-carbon ring polyketides with a 2-fold axis of symmetry. They are potent cytotoxins that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Swinholides were discovered from the marine sponge Theonella sp. and were long suspected to be produced by symbiotic bacteria. Misakinolide, a structural variant of swinholide, was recently demonstrated to be the product of a symbiotic heterotrophic proteobacterium. Here, we report the production of swinholide A by an axenic strain of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain UHCC 0450. We located the 85-kb trans-AT polyketide synthase (PKS) swinholide biosynthesis gene cluster from a draft genome of Nostoc sp. UHCC 0450. The swinholide and misakinolide biosynthesis gene clusters share an almost identical order of catalytic domains, with 85% nucleotide sequence identity, and they group together in phylogenetic analysis. Our results resolve speculation around the true producer of swinholides and demonstrate that bacteria belonging to two distantly related phyla both produce structural variants of the same natural product. In addition, we described a biosynthesis cluster from Anabaena sp. strain UHCC 0451 for the synthesis of the cytotoxic and antifungal scytophycin. All of these biosynthesis gene clusters were closely related to each other and created a group of cytotoxic macrolide compounds produced by trans-AT PKSs of cyanobacteria and proteobacteria.IMPORTANCE Many of the drugs in use today originate from natural products. New candidate compounds for drug development are needed due to increased drug resistance. An increased knowledge of the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds can be used to aid chemical synthesis to produce novel drugs. Here, we show that a terrestrial axenic culture of Nostoc cyanobacterium produces swinholides, which have been previously found only from marine sponge or samples related to them. Swinholides are polyketides with a 2-fold axis of symmetry, and they are potent cytotoxins that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. We describe the biosynthesis gene clusters of swinholide from Nostoc cyanobacteria, as well as the related cytotoxic and antifungal scytophycin from Anabaena cyanobacteria, and we study the evolution of their trans-AT polyketide synthases. Interestingly, swinholide is closely related to misakinolide produced by a symbiotic heterotrophic proteobacterium, demonstrating that bacteria belonging to two distantly related phyla and different habitats can produce similar natural products.
Project description:Massive blooms of toxic cyanobacteria frequently occur in the central Baltic Sea during the summer. In the surface scum, cyanobacterial cells are exposed to high light (HL) intensity, high oxygen partial pressure and other stresses. To mimic these conditions, cultures of Nodularia spumigena CCY9414, which is a strain isolated from a cyanobacterial summer bloom in the Baltic Sea, were incubated at a HL intensity of 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) or a combination of HL and increased oxygen partial pressure. Using differential RNA sequencing, we compared the global primary transcriptomes of control and stressed cells. The combination of oxidative and light stresses induced the expression of twofold more genes compared with HL stress alone. In addition to the induction of known stress-responsive genes, such as psbA, ocp and sodB, Nodularia cells activated the expression of genes coding for many previously unknown light- and oxidative stress-related proteins. In addition, the expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was found to be stimulated by these stresses. Among them was an antisense RNA to the phycocyanin-encoding mRNA cpcBAC and the trans-encoded regulator of photosystem I, PsrR1. The large genome capacity allowed Nodularia to harbor more copies of stress-relevant genes such as psbA and small chlorophyll-binding protein genes, combined with the coordinated induction of these and many additional genes for stress acclimation. Our data provide a first insight on how N. spumigena became adapted to conditions relevant for a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea.
Project description:The bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena CENA596 encodes the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of the known natural products nodularins, spumigins, anabaenopeptins/namalides, aeruginosins, mycosporin-like amino acids, and scytonemin, along with the terpenoid geosmin. Targeted metabolomics confirmed the production of these metabolic compounds, except for the alkaloid scytonemin. Genome mining of N. spumigena CENA596 and its three closely related Nodularia strains-two planktonic strains from the Baltic Sea and one benthic strain from Japanese marine sediment-revealed that the number of BGCs in planktonic strains was higher than in benthic one. Geosmin-a volatile compound with unpleasant taste and odor-was unique to the Brazilian strain CENA596. Automatic annotation of the genomes using subsystems technology revealed a related number of coding sequences and functional roles. Orthologs from the Nodularia genomes are involved in the primary and secondary metabolisms. Phylogenomic analysis of N. spumigena CENA596 based on 120 conserved protein sequences positioned this strain close to the Baltic Nodularia. Phylogeny of the 16S rRNA genes separated the Brazilian CENA596 strain from those of the Baltic Sea, despite their high sequence identities (99% identity, 100% coverage). The comparative analysis among planktic Nodularia strains showed that their genomes were considerably similar despite their geographically distant origin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lenvatinib demonstrated a treatment effect on overall survival by the statistical confirmation of non-inferiority to sorafenib for the first-line treatment of uHCC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of lenvatinib compared with sorafenib for patients with uHCC in Japan. METHODS:A partitioned-survival model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lenvatinib versus sorafenib when treating uHCC patients over a lifetime horizon and considering total public healthcare expenditure. Efficacy and safety data were extracted from the REFLECT trial. Utility values were derived from the European Quality-of-Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire, conducted with patients enrolled in the REFLECT trial. Direct medical costs, such as primary drug therapy, outpatient visits, diagnostic tests, hospitalization, post-progression therapy, and adverse-event treatments, were included. Cost parameters unavailable in the clinical trial or publications were obtained based on the consolidated clinical standards from a Delphi panel of four Japanese medical experts. RESULTS:For lenvatinib versus sorafenib, the incremental cost was - 406,307 Japanese Yen (JPY), and the incremental life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 0.27 and 0.23, respectively. Thus, lenvatinib dominated sorafenib, due to the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio falling in the fourth quadrant, conferring more benefit at lower costs compared with sorafenib. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that 81.3% of the simulations were favorable to lenvatinib compared with sorafenib, with a payer's willingness-to-pay-per-QALY of 5 million JPY. CONCLUSIONS:Lenvatinib was cost-effective compared with sorafenib for the first-line treatment of uHCC in Japan.