Project description:Down syndrome (DS) is caused by a triplication of chromosome 21 (HSA21). Increased oxidative stress, decreased neurogenesis and synaptic dysfunction from HSA21 gene overexpression are thought to cause mental retardation, dementia and seizure in this disorder. Recent epigenetic studies have raised the possibility that DNA methylation has significant effects on DS neurodevelopment. Here, we performed methylome profiling in normal and DS fetal cortices and observed a significant hypermethylation in ?4% of probes in the DS samples compared with age-matched normals. The probes with differential methylation were distributed across all chromosomes, with no enrichment on HSA21. Functional annotation and pathway analyses showed that genes in the ubiquitination pathway were significantly altered, including: BRCA1, TSPYL5 and PEX10 HSA21 located DNMT3L was overexpressed in DS neuroprogenitors, and this overexpression increased the promoter methylation of TSPYL5 potentially through DNMT3B, and decreased its mRNA expression. DNMT3L overexpression also increased mRNA levels for TP53 and APP, effectors of TSPYL5 Furthermore, DNMT3L overexpression increased APP and PSD95 expression in differentiating neurons, whereas DNMT3LshRNA could partially rescue the APP and PSD95 up-regulation in DS cells. These results provide some of the first mechanistic insights into causes for epigenetic changes in DS, leading to modification of genes relevant for the DS neural endophenotype.
Project description:DNMT3L is an important epigenetic regulator in mammals, integrating DNA methylation and histone modification based epigenetic circuits. Here we show DNMT3L to be a part of the machinery that enables inheritance of epigenetic modifications from one generation to the next. Ectopic expression of DNMT3L in Drosophila, which lacks DNMT3L and its normal interacting partners DNMT3A and DNMT3B, lead to nuclear reprogramming that was gradual and progressive, resulting in melanotic tumors that were observed only when these flies were maintained for five generations. This global gene expression misregulation was accompanied by aberrations in the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, globally as well as at specific gene promoters. The levels of these epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) also increased progressively across successive generations. The accumulation and inheritance of epimutations across multiple generations recapitulates the important role of DNMT3L in intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in mammals.
Project description:During oogenesis, DNA methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3l) is required for the establishment of the maternal germline DNA methylation imprints that in the offspring, govern the parent-of-origin-specific expression of most known imprinted genes (Science 2001, 294:2536-9). Dnmt3l-deficient dams were crossed with wildtype sires to obtain Dnmt3l-/+ embryos that lack maternal methylation imprints. Gene expression was measured in Dnmt3l-/+ and wildtype embryos and is expected to differ for imprinted genes that are under the control of a maternal methylation mark. Keywords: genetic modification, DNA methylation Overall design: 1 normal control sample/array. 2 biologically replicate Dnmt3l-/+ samples/arrays.
Project description:Imprinted genes are expressed from a single allele due to differential methylation of maternal or paternal alleles during gametogenesis. Dnmt3L (DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3 like), a member of de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3 protein family, is a regulator of maternal imprinting. In the present study, we have characterized the promoter region of the mouse Dnmt3L gene. Transient transfection assays performed with 5'-deletion promoter constructs indicated a minimal promoter area within 440 bp upstream from the translational start site. Longer promoter constructs showed decreased activity, suggesting the presence of repressor elements within the upstream sequences. According to electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and mutation analysis, the minimal promoter region contained four functional binding sites for the Sp1 (specificity protein 1) family of transcription factors, Sp1 and Sp3. In vitro methylation of Dnmt3L promoter constructs decreased the transcriptional activity significantly, demonstrating down-regulation by cytosine methylation. This was supported by the results from bisulphite sequencing and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of different mouse cell lines and tissues. In testis and embryonic stem cells showing strong Dnmt3L expression, all CpG sites studied were fully unmethylated, whereas non-expressive cell lines and tissues with lesser Dnmt3L expression showed complete or diverse CpG methylation levels. Treatment of Dnmt3L non-expressive cell lines with deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced the expression of Dnmt3L mRNA. Furthermore, we show that the repressional effect of longer promoter fragments was also relieved by these inhibitors, altogether indicating an epigenetic control for Dnmt3L gene regulation.
Project description:During oogenesis, DNA methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3l) is required for the establishment of the maternal germline DNA methylation imprints that in the offspring, govern the parent-of-origin-specific expression of most known imprinted genes (Science 2001, 294:2536-9). Dnmt3l-deficient dams were crossed with wildtype sires to obtain Dnmt3l-/+ embryos that lack maternal methylation imprints. Gene expression was measured in Dnmt3l-/+ and wildtype embryos and is expected to differ for imprinted genes that are under the control of a maternal methylation mark. Experiment Overall Design: 1 normal control sample/array. 2 biologically replicate Dnmt3l-/+ samples/arrays.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a genome-wide profile of differential DNA methylation that is skewed towards hypermethylation in most tissues, including brain, and includes pan-tissue differential methylation. The molecular mechanisms involve the overexpression of genes related to DNA methylation on chromosome 21. Here, we stably overexpressed the chromosome 21 gene DNA methyltransferase 3L (DNMT3L) in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and assayed DNA methylation at over 26 million CpGs by whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) at three different developmental phases (undifferentiated, differentiating, and differentiated). <h4>Results</h4> DNMT3L overexpression resulted in global CpG and CpG island hypermethylation as well as thousands of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The DNMT3L DMRs were skewed towards hypermethylation and mapped to genes involved in neurodevelopment, cellular signaling, and gene regulation. Consensus DNMT3L DMRs showed that cell lines clustered by genotype and then differentiation phase, demonstrating sets of common genes affected across neuronal differentiation. The hypermethylated DNMT3L DMRs from all pairwise comparisons were enriched for regions of bivalent chromatin marked by H3K4me3 as well as differentially methylated sites from previous DS studies of diverse tissues. In contrast, the hypomethylated DNMT3L DMRs from all pairwise comparisons displayed a tissue-specific profile enriched for regions of heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3 during embryonic development. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Taken together, these results support a mechanism whereby regions of bivalent chromatin that lose H3K4me3 during neuronal differentiation are targeted by excess DNMT3L and become hypermethylated. Overall, these findings demonstrate that DNMT3L overexpression during neurodevelopment recreates a facet of the genome-wide DS DNA methylation signature by targeting known genes and gene clusters that display pan-tissue differential methylation in DS. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13072-021-00387-7.
Project description:Dnmt3L is required for the establishment of maternal methylation imprints at imprinting centers (ICs). Dnmt3L, however, lacks the conserved catalytic domain common to DNA methyltransferases. In an attempt to define its function, we coexpressed DNMT3L with each of the two known de novo methyltransferases, Dnmt3a and DNMT3B, in human cells and monitored de novo methylation by using replicating minichromosomes carrying various ICs as targets. Coexpression of DNMT3L with DNMT3B led to little or no change in target methylation. However, coexpression of DNMT3L with Dnmt3a resulted in a striking stimulation of de novo methylation by Dnmt3a. Stimulation was observed at maternally methylated ICs such as small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN), Snrpn, and Igf2rAir, as well as at various nonimprinted sequences present on the episomes. Stimulation of Dnmt3a by DNMT3L was also observed at endogenous sequences in the genome. Therefore, DNMT3L acts as a general stimulatory factor for de novo methylation by Dnmt3a. The implications of these findings for the function of DNMT3L and Dnmt3a in DNA methylation and genomic imprinting are discussed.
Project description:The production of mature germ cells capable of generating totipotent zygotes is a highly specialized and sexually dimorphic process. The transition from diploid primordial germ cell to haploid spermatozoa requires genome-wide reprogramming of DNA methylation, stage- and testis-specific gene expression, mitotic and meiotic division, and the histone-protamine transition, all requiring unique epigenetic control. Dnmt3L, a DNA methyltransferase regulator, is expressed during gametogenesis, and its deletion results in sterility. We found that during spermatogenesis, Dnmt3L contributes to the acquisition of DNA methylation at paternally imprinted regions, unique nonpericentric heterochromatic sequences, and interspersed repeats, including autonomous transposable elements. We observed retrotransposition of an LTR-ERV1 element in the DNA from Dnmt3L-/- germ cells, presumably as a result of hypomethylation. Later in development, in Dnmt3L-/- meiotic spermatocytes, we detected abnormalities in the status of biochemical markers of heterochromatin, implying aberrant chromatin packaging. Coincidentally, homologous chromosomes fail to align and form synaptonemal complexes, spermatogenesis arrests, and spermatocytes are lost by apoptosis and sloughing. Because Dnmt3L expression is restricted to gonocytes, the presence of defects in later stages reveals a mechanism whereby early genome reprogramming is linked inextricably to changes in chromatin structure required for completion of spermatogenesis.