Project description:The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is one of the primary pathogens responsible for the development of dental caries. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) approaches have been employed in epidemiological studies of specific human pathogens. However, this approach has not been reported in studies of S. mutans Here, we therefore developed a cgMLST scheme for S. mutans We surveyed 199 available S. mutans genomes as a means of identifying cgMLST targets, developing a scheme that incorporated 594 targets from the S. mutans UA159 reference genome. Sixty-eight sequence types (STs) were identified in this cgMLST scheme (cgSTs) in 80 S. mutans isolates from 40 children that were sequenced in this study, compared to 35 STs identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Fifty-six cgSTs (82.35%) were associated with a single isolate based on our cgMLST scheme, which is significantly higher than in the MLST scheme (11.43%). In addition, 58.06% of all MLST profiles with??2 isolates were further differentiated by our cgMLST scheme. Topological analyses of the maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees revealed that our cgMLST scheme was more reliable than the MLST scheme. A minimum spanning tree of 145 S. mutans isolates from 10 countries developed based upon the cgMLST scheme highlighted the diverse population structure of S. mutans This cgMLST scheme thus offers a new molecular typing method suitable for evaluating the epidemiological distribution of this pathogen and has the potential to serve as a benchmark for future global studies of the epidemiological nature of dental caries.IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans is regarded as a major pathogen responsible for the onset of dental caries. S. mutans can transmit among people, especially within families. In this study, we established a new epidemiological approach to S. mutans classification. This approach can effectively differentiate among closely related isolates and offers superior reliability relative to that of the traditional MLST molecular typing method. As such, it has the potential to better support effective public health strategies centered around this bacterium that are aimed at preventing and treating dental caries.
Project description:Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding alpha-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of amy by insertion of an antibiotic resistance marker confirmed that S. mutans has a single alpha-amylase activity. The amylase activity was induced by maltose but not by starch, and no acid was produced from starch. S. mutans can, however, transport limit dextrins and maltooligosaccharides generated by salivary amylase, but inactivation of amy did not affect growth on these substrates or acid production. The amylase digested the glycogen-like intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) purified from S. mutans, but the amy mutant was able to digest and produce acid from IPS; thus, amylase does not appear to be essential for IPS breakdown. However, when grown on excess maltose, the amy mutant produced nearly threefold the amount of IPS produced by the parent strain. The role of Amy has not been established, but Amy appears to be important in the accumulation of IPS in S. mutans grown on maltose.
Project description:M102AD is the new designation for a Streptococcus mutans phage described in 1993 as phage M102. This change was necessitated by the genome analysis of another S. mutans phage named M102, which revealed differences from the genome sequence reported here. Additional host range analyses confirmed that S. mutans phage M102AD infects only a few serotype c strains. Phage M102AD adsorbed very slowly to its host, and it cannot adsorb to serotype e and f strains of S. mutans. M102AD adsorption was blocked by c-specific antiserum. Phage M102AD also adsorbed equally well to heat-treated and trypsin-treated cells, suggesting carbohydrate receptors. Saliva and polysaccharide production did not inhibit plaque formation. The genome of this siphophage consisted of a linear, double-stranded, 30,664-bp DNA molecule, with a GC content of 39.6%. Analysis of the genome extremities indicated the presence of a 3'-overhang cos site that was 11 nucleotides long. Bioinformatic analyses identified 40 open reading frames, all in the same orientation. No lysogeny-related genes were found, indicating that phage M102AD is strictly virulent. No obvious virulence factor gene candidates were found. Twelve proteins were identified in the virion structure by mass spectrometry. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a close relationship between S. mutans phages M102AD and M102 as well as with Streptococcus thermophilus phages. This study also highlights the importance of conducting research with biological materials obtained from recognized microbial collections.
Project description:Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-characterized wild-types of both species and well-defined mutants of S. gordonii with interrupted abpA and gtfG genes were studied. While both S. gordonii and S. mutans were abundant colonizers of rat's teeth in the presence of either diet, if inoculated singly, S. mutans always out-competed S. gordonii on the teeth, independent of diet, strain of S. mutans, simultaneous or sequential inoculation, or presence/absence of mutations of S. gordonii's abpA and gtfG genes known to negatively or positively affect its colonization and to interact in vitro with S. mutans GtfB. S. mutans out-competed S. gordonii in in vivo plaque biofilm. Caries induction reflected S. mutans or S. gordonii colonization abundance: the former highly cariogenic, the latter not. S. gordonii does not appear to be a good candidate for replacement therapy. These results are consistent with human data.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of serotype k S. mutans strain LJ23, which was recently isolated from the oral cavity of a Japanese patient.
Project description:We report the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain HM isolated from a 4-year-old girl with infective endocarditis. The genomics information will provide information on the genetic diversity and virulence potential of S. mutans strain HM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. RESULTS: We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS) elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain originally isolated from human carious lesions, which is extensively used as a laboratory strain worldwide.
Project description:Polymicrobial interactions in dental plaque play a significant role in dysbiosis and homeostasis in the oral cavity. In early childhood caries, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are often co-isolated from carious lesions and associated with increased disease severity. Studies have demonstrated that metabolic and glucan-dependent synergism between C. albicans and S. mutans contribute to enhanced pathogenesis. However, it is unclear how oral commensals influence pathogen synergy. Streptococcus parasanguinis, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing oral commensal, has antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. In this study, we utilized a three species biofilm model to understand the impact of S. parasanguinis on S. mutans and C. albicans synergy. We report that S. parasanguinis disrupts S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm synergy in a contact and H2O2-independent manner. Further, metabolomics analysis revealed a S. parasanguinis-driven alteration in sugar metabolism that restricts biofilm development by S. mutans. Moreover, S. parasanguinis inhibits S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB) activity, which is important for glucan matrix development and GtfB-mediated binding to C. albicans mannan. Taken together, our study describes a new antimicrobial role for S. parasanguinis and highlights how this abundant oral commensal may be utilized to attenuate pathogen synergism.