Project description:Direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based therapy is the new standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant viral variants have been often described. This study aimed to examine HCV-NS3 protease variants at baseline and at 4 weeks under triple therapy. To this end, we analyzed the presence of variants in HCV-NS3 protease region from peripheral blood samples of 16 patients infected with HCV-1 at baseline and at 4 weeks of combined therapy with telaprevir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin, using next-generation sequencing. Several variants with synonymous and non-synonymous amino acid substitutions were detected at both time points. Variants detected at low frequency corresponded to 74% (HCV-1a) and 35% (HCV-1b) of non-synonymous substitutions. We found nine PI-resistance-associated variants (V36A, T54S, V55I, Q80K, Q80R, V107I, I132V, D168E, M175L) in HCV-NS3 of 10 patients. There was no correspondence of resistance-associated variant profile between baseline and at 4 weeks. Moreover, these resistance variants at baseline and short-term treatment are not good predictors of outcome under triple therapy. Our study also shows a large number of others minor and major non-synonymous variants in HCV-NS3 early in telaprevir-based therapy that can be important for further drug resistance association studies with newly developed PI agents.
Project description:To establish a baseline for monitoring resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) and examining the efficacy of their use among persons in Cameroon infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we analyzed genetic variability and PI resistance-associated substitutions in PCR-amplified protease (PR) sequences in strains isolated from 110 HIV-1-infected, drug-naïve Cameroonians. Of the 110 strains, 85 were classified into six HIV-1 PR subtypes, A (n = 1), B (n = 1), F (n = 4), G (n = 7), H (n = 1), and J (n = 7), and a circulating recombinant form, CRF02-AG (n = 64). PR genes from the remaining 25 (23%) specimens were unclassifiable, whereas 2% (7 of 301) unclassifiable PR sequences were reported for a global collection. Two major PI resistance-associated mutations, 20M and 24I, were detected in strains from only two specimens, whereas secondary mutations were found in strains from all samples except one strain of subtype B and two strains of CRF02-AG. The secondary mutations showed the typical PI resistance-associated pattern for non-subtype B viruses in both classifiable and unclassifiable PR genes, with 36I being the predominant (99%) mutation, followed by 63P (18%), 20R (15%), 77I (13%), and 10I or 10V (11%). Of these mutations, dual and triple PI resistance-associated substitutions were found in 38% of all the Cameroonian strains. Compared with classifiable PR sequences, unclassifiable sequences had significantly more dual and triple substitutions (64% versus 30%; P = 0.004). Phenotypic and clinical evaluations are needed to estimate whether PI resistance during antiretroviral drug treatment occurs more rapidly in individuals infected with HIV-1 strains harboring multiple PI resistance-associated substitutions. This information may be important for determination of appropriate drug therapies for HIV-1-infected persons in Cameroon, where more than one-third of HIV-1 strains were found to carry dual and triple minor PI resistance-associated mutations.
Project description:Some mutations in the connection subdomain of the polymerase domain and in the RNase H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) have been shown to contribute to resistance to RT inhibitors. However, the clinical relevance of such mutations is not well understood. To address this point we determined the prevalence of such mutations in a cohort of antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients (n=123) and assessed whether these substitutions are associated with drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. We report here significant differences in the prevalence of substitutions among subtype B, and non-subtype B HIV isolates. Specifically, the E312Q, G333E, G335D, V365I, A371V and A376S substitutions were present in 2-6% of subtype B, whereas the G335D and A371V substitutions were commonly observed in 69% and 75% of non-B HIV-1 isolates. We observed a significant decline in the viral loads of patients that were infected with HIV-1 carrying these substitutions and were subsequently treated with triple drug regimens, even in the case where zidovudine (AZT) was included in such regimens. We show here that, generally, such single substitutions at the connection subdomain or RNase H domain have no influence on drug susceptibility in vitro by themselves. Instead, they generally enhance AZT resistance in the presence of excision-enhancing mutations (EEMs, also known as thymidine analogue-associated mutations, TAMs). However, N348I, A376S and Q509L did confer varying amounts of nevirapine resistance by themselves, even in the absence of EEMs. Our studies indicate that several connection subdomain and RNase H domain substitutions typically act as pre-therapy polymorphisms.
Project description:The objective of this observational study was to assess the genetic variability in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-positive (clade B), protease inhibitor-naïve patients and to evaluate its association with the subsequent effectiveness of a protease inhibitor-containing triple-drug regimen. The protease gene was sequenced from plasma-derived virus from 116 protease inhibitor-naïve patients. The virological response to a triple-drug regimen containing indinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir was evaluated every 3 months for as long as 2 years (n = 40). A total of 36 different amino acid substitutions compared to the reference sequence (HIV-1 HXB2) were detected. No substitutions at the active site similar to the primary resistance mutations were found. The most frequent substitutions (prevalence, >10%) at baseline were located at codons 15, 13, 12, 62, 36, 64, 41, 35, 3, 93, 77, 63, and 37 (in ascending order of frequency). The mean number of polymorphisms was 4.2. A relatively poorer response to therapy was associated with a high number of baseline polymorphisms and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of I93L at baseline in comparison with the wild-type virus. A71V/T was slightly associated with a poorer response to first-line ritonavir-based therapy. In summary, within clade B viruses, protease gene natural polymorphisms are common. There is evidence suggesting that treatment response is associated with this genetic background, but most of the specific contributors could not be firmly identified. I93L, occurring in about 30% of untreated patients, may play a role, as A71V/T possibly does in ritonavir-treated patients.
Project description:Three hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors, asunaprevir (ASV; BMS-650032), daclatasvir (DCV; BMS-790052), and BMS-791325, each targeting a different nonstructural protein of the virus (NS3, NS5A, and NS5B, respectively), have independently demonstrated encouraging preclinical profiles and are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Since drug-resistant variants have rapidly developed in response to monotherapy with almost all direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV, the need for combination therapies to effectively eradicate the virus from infected patients is clear. These studies demonstrated the additive-synergistic effects on replicon inhibition and clearance of combining NS3 protease or NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitors with the first-in-class, NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) and reveal new resistance pathways for combinations of two small-molecule inhibitors that differ from those that develop during monotherapy. The results suggest that under a specific selective pressure, a balance must be reached in the fitness costs of substitutions in one target gene when substitutions are also present in another target gene. Further synergies and additional novel resistance substitutions were observed during triple-combination treatment relative to dual-drug therapy, indicating that, in combination, HCV inhibitors can exert cross-target influences on resistance development. Enhanced synergies in replicon inhibition and a reduced frequency of resistance together lend strong support to the utility of combinations of DAAs for the treatment of HCV, and the identification of altered resistance profiles during combination treatment provides useful information for monitoring resistance in the clinic.
Project description:Faldaprevir (BI 201335) is a selective NS3/4A protease inhibitor under development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. NS3/4A genotyping and NS3 protease phenotyping analyses were performed to monitor the emergence of resistance in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection receiving faldaprevir alone or combined with pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin (PegIFN-RBV) during a phase 1b study. Among all baseline variants, a maximum 7-fold reduction in in vitro sensitivity to faldaprevir was observed for a rare NS3 (V/I)170T polymorphism. During faldaprevir monotherapy in treatment-naive patients, virologic breakthrough was common (77%, 20/26) and was associated with the emergence of resistance mutations predominantly carrying NS3 substitutions R155K in GT1a and D168V in GT1b. D168V conferred a greater reduction in faldaprevir sensitivity (1,800-fold) than R155K (330-fold); however, D168V was generally less fit than R155K in the absence of selective drug pressure. Treatment-experienced patients treated with faldaprevir-PegIFN-RBV triple therapy showed higher viral load reductions, lower rates of breakthrough (8%, 5/62), and less frequent emergence of resistance-associated variants compared with faldaprevir monotherapy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00793793.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pegylated interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir triple therapy is a new strategy expected to eradicate the hepatitis C virus (HCV) even in patients infected with difficult-to-treat genotype 1 strains, although adverse effects, such as anemia and rash, are frequent. METHODS:We assessed efficacy and predictive factors for sustained virological response (SVR) for triple therapy in 94 Japanese patients with HCV genotype 1. We included recently identified predictive factors, such as IL28B and ITPA polymorphism, and substitutions in the HCV core and NS5A proteins. RESULTS:Patients treated with triple therapy achieved comparatively high SVR rates (73%), especially among treatment-naive patients (80%). Of note, however, patients who experienced relapse during prior pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy were highly likely to achieve SVR while receiving triple therapy (93%); conversely, prior nonresponders were much less likely to respond to triple therapy (32%). In addition to prior treatment response, IL28B SNP genotype and rapid viral response were significant independent predictors for SVR. Patients with the anemia-susceptible ITPA SNP rs1127354 genotype typically required ribavirin dose reduction earlier than did patients with other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS:Analysis of predictive factors identified IL28B SNP, rapid viral response, and transient response to previous therapy as significant independent predictors of SVR after triple therapy.
Project description:The first standard of care in treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection involving directly acting antivirals was protease inhibitors telaprevir or boceprevir combined with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (triple therapy). Phase III studies include highly selected patients. Thus, treatment response and development of viral resistance during triple therapy in a routine clinical setting needs to be determined. The aims of this study were to investigate treatment outcome and identify sequence variations after triple therapy in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in a routine clinical setting.80 patients, who initiated and completed triple therapy in Denmark between May 2011 and November 2012, were included. Demographic data and treatment response were obtained from the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. Direct sequencing and clonal analysis of the RT-PCR amplified NS3 protease were performed in patients without cure following triple therapy.38 (47%) of the patients achieved cure, 15 (19%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events and remained infected, and 27 (34%) experienced relapse or treatment failure of whom 15 of 21 analyzed patients had well-described protease inhibitor resistance variants detected. Most frequently detected protease variants were V36M and/or R155K, and V36M, in patients with genotype 1a and 1b infection, respectively.The cure rate after triple therapy in a routine clinical setting was 47%, which is substantially lower than in clinical trials. Resistance variants towards protease inhibitors were seen in 71% of patients failing therapy indicating that resistance could have an important role in treatment response.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) amino acid substitutions observed during antiretroviral drug therapy may be caused by drug selection, non-drug-related evolution, or sampling error introduced by the sequencing process. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences from 371 untreated patients and from 178 patients receiving a single protease inhibitor. Amino acid substitution patterns during treatment were compared with inferred substitution patterns arising evolutionarily without treatment. Our results suggest that most treatment-associated amino acid substitutions are caused by selective drug pressure, including substitutions not previously associated with drug resistance.
Project description:AbstractHelicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic has not been monitored. We assessed H. pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic, and analyzed H. pylori mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. We recruited 158 dyspeptic patients in Santo Domingo and used agar dilution to test susceptibility to five antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing was used to assess gyrA, gyrB, rdxA, frxA, and 23S rRNA mutations; next-generation sequencing was used to identify other metronidazole resistance-associated genes. Among 64 H. pylori strains isolated, we identified two (3.1%), one (1.6%), and no strains with clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline resistance, respectively. Moreover, high frequency of metronidazole resistance (53/64, 82.8%) was observed, whereas levofloxacin resistance is emerging (23/64, 35.9%). We identified many rdxA and frxA mutations in metronidazole-resistant strains, but no synergistic effect was apparent. We revealed novel mutations in dppA, dppB, fdxA, and fdxB, irrespective of rdxA and frxA mutations. Novel mutations at Ser-14 of trx1 and Arg-221 of dapF were associated with different levels of metronidazole resistance. Most levofloxacin-resistant strains had a substitution at Asn-87 of gyrA, including the strain with the highest levofloxacin resistance, whereas only three substitutions were found at Ser-479 of gyrB with no synergistic effect. Besides the 23S rRNA A2142G mutation, we observed another mutation at T1958G in both clarithromycin-resistant strains. We confirmed high metronidazole and levofloxacin resistance associated with genetic mutations in the Dominican Republic. However, prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was low, suggesting that standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy remains useful as initial treatment of H. pylori infection.