Project description:In situ measurements with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) provide an efficient way for acquiring soil information of paddy soils in the short time gap between the harvest and following rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility to predict a series of soil properties including organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK) and pH of paddy soils in Zhejiang province, China. Firstly, the linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed on the in situ spectra and the predictions were compared to those with laboratory-based recorded spectra. Then, the non-linear least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm was carried out aiming to extract more useful information from the in situ spectra and improve predictions. Results show that in terms of OC, OM, TN, AN and pH, (i) the predictions were worse using in situ spectra compared to laboratory-based spectra with PLSR algorithm (ii) the prediction accuracy using LS-SVM (R2>0.75, RPD>1.90) was obviously improved with in situ vis-NIR spectra compared to PLSR algorithm, and comparable or even better than results generated using laboratory-based spectra with PLSR; (iii) in terms of AP and AK, poor predictions were obtained with in situ spectra (R2<0.5, RPD<1.50) either using PLSR or LS-SVM. The results highlight the use of LS-SVM for in situ vis-NIR spectroscopic estimation of soil properties of paddy soils.
Project description:The ongoing COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread within and outside of China, despite several social distancing measures implemented by the Chinese government. Limited epidemiological data are available, and recent changes in case definition and reporting further complicate our understanding of the impact of the epidemic, particularly in the epidemic's epicenter. Here we use previously validated phenomenological models to generate short-term forecasts of cumulative reported cases in Guangdong and Zhejiang, China. Using daily reported cumulative case data up until 13 February 2020 from the National Health Commission of China, we report 5- and 10-day ahead forecasts of cumulative case reports. Specifically, we generate forecasts using a generalized logistic growth model, the Richards growth model, and a sub-epidemic wave model, which have each been previously used to forecast outbreaks due to different infectious diseases. Forecasts from each of the models suggest the outbreaks may be nearing extinction in both Guangdong and Zhejiang; however, the sub-epidemic model predictions also include the potential for further sustained transmission, particularly in Zhejiang. Our 10-day forecasts across the three models predict an additional 65-81 cases (upper bounds: 169-507) in Guangdong and an additional 44-354 (upper bounds: 141-875) cases in Zhejiang by February 23, 2020. In the best-case scenario, current data suggest that transmission in both provinces is slowing down.
Project description:Evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a paddy field was obtained in Southern China using an isotope-pairing technique, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, along with nutrient profiles of soil cores. A paddy field with a high load of slurry manure as fertilizer was selected for this study and was shown to contain a high amount of ammonium (6.2-178.8? mg ?kg(-1)). The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) rates in this paddy soil ranged between 0.5 and 2.9 ?nmol N per gram of soil per hour in different depths of the soil core, and the specific cellular anammox activity observed in batch tests ranged from 2.9 to 21 ?fmol per cell per day. Anammox contributed 4-37% to soil N2 production, the remainder being due to denitrification. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of surface soil were closely related to the anammox bacteria 'Kuenenia', 'Anammoxoglobus' and 'Jettenia'. Most of the anammox 16S rRNA genes retrieved from the deeper soil were affiliated to 'Brocadia'. The retrieval of mainly bacterial amoA sequences in the upper part of the paddy soil indicated that nitrifying bacteria may be the major source of nitrite for anammox bacteria in the cultivated horizon. In the deeper oxygen-limited parts, only archaeal amoA sequences were found, indicating that archaea may produce nitrite in this part of the soil. It is estimated that a total loss of 76 ?g ?N ?m(-2) per year is linked to anammox in the paddy field.
Project description:Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a newly determined etiological agent of vesicular disease in swine, causes porcine idiopathic disease and occasional acute death in piglets. Recently, an increased number of SVV infection cases have been reported in the United States (US) and China, resulting in significant economic losses to the swine industry. The first identification of SVV in China was reported in Guangdong Province, a major swine producing province. The cases of SVV were continuously reported in Guangdong in 2015 and 2016. However, the spread of SVV in Guangdong in 2017 remains unknown. In this study, we determined two new SVV strains, CH-GD-2017-1 and CH-GD-2017-2, from Guangdong. The genetic analysis suggested that the two Guangdong strains showed different characteristics to previous Guangdong strains. They showed lower nucleotide similarity with strains isolated in 2015 and 2016, and were more similar to the US strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the new strains were clustered in a different clade with previous Guangdong strains. We found 28 mutated amino acids in the new strains, compared with the first Guangdong strain, SVV CH-01-2015. In the geographic analysis, we found that the US and China reported more SVV cases than other countries, and most of the SVV cases were reported in east and central China-of which, Guangdong Province is one of the major epidemic regions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SVV continued to spread in Guangdong Province in 2017, and two different clades of SVVs have emerged in this region.
Project description:We report a disease outbreak caused by chikungunya virus in Zhejiang Province, China, in August 2017. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this virus belonged to the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Central/South African genotype and was imported by a traveler returning from Bangladesh.
Project description:The contents and properties of soil organic phosphorus (Po) largely drive ecosystem productivity with increasing development of natural soil. We hypothesized that soil Po would initially increase with paddy management and then would persist under steady-state conditions. We analyzed soils from a 2000-year chronosequence of a rice-wheat rotation and an adjacent non-paddy 700-year chronosequence in Bay of Hangzhou (China) for their Po composition using solution 31P-NMR after NaOH-EDTA extraction. Land reclamation promoted Po accumulation in both paddy and non-paddy topsoils (depths???18?cm) until steady-state equilibria were reached within 200 years of land use. Greater Po concentrations were found, however, in the non-paddy subsoils than in those under paddy management. Apparently, the formation of a dense paddy plough pan hindered long-term Po accumulation in the paddy subsoil. The surface soils showed higher proportions of orthophosphate diesters under paddy than under non-paddy management, likely reflecting suppressed decomposition of crop residues despite elevated microbial P compounds stocks under anaerobic paddy-rice management. Intriguingly, the composition of Po was remarkably stable after 194-years of paddy management and 144-years of non-paddy management, suggesting novel steady-state equilibria of P dynamics had been reached in these man-made ecosystems after less than two centuries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The eastern and western regions of China are different in many ways such as socioeconomic characteristics and health resource distribution. This study aimed to explore the outpatient health-seeking behavior and compare the influencing factors of residents in Zhejiang and Qinghai Province, which represent the situation in eastern and western China. Thus, this research will provide evidence for health resource allocation and health reform. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample selected from 1600 households in Zhejiang and Qinghai province between 2016 to 2017 by the multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Among the 4231 residents aged 15 years or older in the sample, 566 who reported ill-health were selected for data analysis. Two-week outpatient visits and choice of health institutions were used to measure residents' outpatient health-seeking behavior and assessed using Chi-square tests. The binary logistic regression was adopted to demonstrate the association between explanatory variables and outpatient visits. RESULTS:The study revealed that out of the people who reported ill-health, 58 individuals (50.97%) in Zhejiang and 106 (41.41%) in Qinghai went to health institutions to seek medical help (p < 0.05). The difference of residents' choice of health institution between Zhejiang and Qinghai was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Among these respondents, Self-report severity was the common and significant factor related to their outpatient visits and it had a greater impact on outpatient visits in Zhejiang (4.18, CI 2.23-7.83, p < 0.05). Other factors such as chronic disease, knowledge of medicine and doctors and distance to the nearest health institution were significant influencing factors in Zhejiang, while in Qinghai it was occupation. CONCLUSIONS:The outpatient health-seeking behavior and its influencing factors among residents in Zhejiang and Qinghai province were different. The findings suggest the importance of having discrepant health policies in the two provinces. It's necessary to improve health literacy of residents in both provinces, strengthen the accessibility of health services in remote areas of Zhejiang and pay more attention to people with low socioeconomic status in Qinghai.
Project description:Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014-2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing antigenic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine strain in vaccinated chickens.
Project description:We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate.
Project description:A disease outbreak with dengue-like symptoms was reported in Guangdong Province, China, in October 2010. Testing results confirmed that the pathogen causing the outbreak was chikungunya virus. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this virus was a member of the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Center/South African subgroup of chikungunya virus.