Project description:Spinach is an important leafy vegetable enriched with multiple necessary nutrients. Here we report the draft genome sequence of spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n=12), which contains 25,495 protein-coding genes. The spinach genome is highly repetitive with 74.4% of its content in the form of transposable elements. No recent whole genome duplication events are observed in spinach. Genome syntenic analysis between spinach and sugar beet suggests substantial inter- and intra-chromosome rearrangements during the Caryophyllales genome evolution. Transcriptome sequencing of 120 cultivated and wild spinach accessions reveals more than 420?K variants. Our data suggests that S. turkestanica is likely the direct progenitor of cultivated spinach and spinach domestication has a weak bottleneck. We identify 93 domestication sweeps in the spinach genome, some of which are associated with important agronomic traits including bolting, flowering and leaf numbers. This study offers insights into spinach evolution and domestication and provides resources for spinach research and improvement.
Project description:Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) has cold tolerant but heat sensitive characteristics. The spinach variety 'Island,' is suitable for summer periods. There is lack molecular information available for spinach in response to heat stress. In this study, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses were carried out at different spinach variety 'Island' leaves (grown at 24?°C (control), exposed to 35?°C for 30?min (S1), and 5?h (S2)). A total of 133,200,898 clean reads were assembled into 59,413 unigenes (average size 1259.55?bp). 33,573 unigenes could match to public databases. The DEG of controls vs S1 was 986, the DEG of control vs S2 was 1741 and the DEG of S1 vs S2 was 1587. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that a great deal of heat-responsive genes and other stress-responsive genes were identified in these DEGs, suggesting that the heat stress may have induced an extensive abiotic stress effect. Comparative transcriptome analysis found 896 unique genes in spinach heat response transcript. The expression patterns of 13 selected genes were verified by RT-qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR). Our study found a series of candidate genes and pathways that may be related to heat resistance in spinach.
Project description:Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an economically important green leafy vegetable crop. In this study, we performed deep transcriptome sequencing for nine spinach accessions: three from cultivated S. oleracea, three from wild S. turkestanica and three from wild S. tetrandra. A total of approximately 100 million high-quality reads were generated, which were de novo assembled into 72,151 unigenes with a total length of 46.5 Mb. By comparing sequences of these unigenes against different protein databases, nearly 60% of them were annotated and 50% could be assigned with Gene Ontology terms. A total of 387 metabolic pathways were predicted from the assembled spinach unigenes. From the transcriptome sequencing data, we were able to identify a total of ~320,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic analyses using SNPs as well as gene expression profiles indicated that S. turkestanica was more closely related to the cultivated S. oleracea than S. tetrandra. A large number of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses were found to be differentially expressed between the cultivated and wild spinach. Finally, an interactive online database (http://www.spinachbase.org) was developed to allow the research community to efficiently retrieve, query, mine and analyze our transcriptome dataset.
Project description:A cDNA encoding a specific binding activity for the tissue-specific negative cis-element S1F binding site of spinach rps1 was isolated from a spinach cDNA expression library. This cDNA of 0.7 kb encodes an unusual small peptide of only 70 amino acids, with a basic domain which contains a nuclear localization signal and a putative DNA binding helix. This protein, named S1Fa, is highly conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants and may represent a novel class of DNA binding proteins. The corresponding mRNA is accumulated more in roots and in etiolated seedlings than in green leaves. This expression pattern is correlated with the tissue-specific function of the S1F binding site which represses the rps1 promoter preferentially in roots and in etiolated plants.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Dioecious spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), a commercial and nutritional vegetable crop, serves as a model for studying the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in plants. However, this mechanism is still unclear. Herein, based on PacBio Iso-seq and Illumina RNA-seq data, comparative transcriptome analysis of male and female flowers were performed to explore the sex differentiation mechanism in spinach.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Compared with published genome of spinach, 10,800 transcripts were newly annotated; alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and lncRNA were analyzed for the first time, increasing the diversity of spinach transcriptome. A total of 2965 differentially expressed genes were identified between female and male flowers at three early development stages. The differential expression of RNA splicing-related genes, polyadenylation-related genes and lncRNAs suggested the involvement of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and lncRNA in sex differentiation. Moreover, 1946 male-biased genes and 961 female-biased genes were found and several candidate genes related to gender development were identified, providing new clues to reveal the mechanism of sex differentiation. In addition, weighted gene co-expression network analysis showed that auxin and gibberellin were the common crucial factors in regulating female or male flower development; however, the closely co-expressed genes of these two factors were different between male and female flower, which may result in spinach sex differentiation.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In this study, 10,800 transcripts were newly annotated, and the alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and long-noncoding RNA were comprehensively analyzed for the first time in spinach, providing valuable information for functional genome study. Moreover, candidate genes related to gender development were identified, shedding new insight on studying the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in plant.
Project description:Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a leading cause of food-borne illness. Fruit and vegetables are recognised as an important source of the pathogen and can account for ~ 25 % of food-borne VTEC outbreaks, globally. The ability of VTEC to colonise leaves and roots of leafy vegetables, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), was compared. The highest levels of colonisation occurred in the roots and rhizosphere, whereas colonisation of the leaves was lower and significantly different between the species. Colonisation of the leaves of prickly lettuce (L. serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce, was especially poor. Differential VTEC gene expression in spinach extracts was markedly different for three tissue types, with little overlap. Comparison of expression in the same tissue type, cell wall polysaccharides, for lettuce and spinach also showed substantial differences, again with virtually no overlap. The transcriptional response was largely dependent on temperatures that are relevant to plant growth, not warm-blooded animals. The data show that VTEC adaptation to plant hosts and subsequent colonisation potential is underpinned by wholescale changes in gene expression that are specific to both plant tissue type and to the species.
Project description:Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 'Sakai,' to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analyzed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce). Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonization. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 h) transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days) plant colonization or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 vs. 18°C) has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated) differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types indicate specificity in substrate utilization. Induction of stress-response genes reflected the apparent physiological status of the bacterial genes in each extract, as a result of glutamate-dependent acid resistance, nutrient stress, or translational stalling. A large proportion of differentially regulated genes are uncharacterized (annotated as hypothetical), which could indicate yet to be described functional roles associated with plant interaction for E. coli O157:H7 Sakai.
Project description:Food-borne illness arising for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is often linked to consumption of fruit and vegetables as the bacteria have the ability to interact with plants and use them as alternative or secondary hosts. Attachment of the bacteria to host tissue is one of the first steps in the interaction, and, as with mammalian hosts, has shown to be mediated by a combination of non-specific and specific adhesin-mediated interactions. We took a high-throughput positive-selection approach to investigate adherence mechanisms for E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai by inoculating a BAC clone library onto spinach, which was quantified by microarray hybridisation and gene loci enrichment measured using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The screen involved four successive rounds of adherence to spinach roots, resulting in 115 CDS credible candidates, covered by seven contiguous genomic regions. Two candidates regions selected for functional assessment included a chaperone-usher fimbrial gene cluster (loc6) and the type two secretion system (T2SS). The TS22 was found to significantly enhance binding to spinach roots and leaves, demonstrated with a BAC-T2SS clone and by mutagenesis of the secretin protein, EtpD. Both etpD and the inner membrane anchor protein gene etpC were expressed at 18 degree celsius, and expression of etpD was demonstrated for STEC (Sakai) resident in the apoplastic spaces in spinach leaf tissue. Together, these data indicate a novel function for STEC T2SS in adherence to plant tissue. Experiment 2: full replicated control screen. Conditions as for Experiment 1 (E-MTAB-5923), but no spinach root present. Two BAC clones (BAC2B5 & BAC2B24) used for additional positive controls.
Project description:Food-borne illness arising for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is often linked to consumption of fruit and vegetables as the bacteria have the ability to interact with plants and use them as alternative or secondary hosts. Attachment of the bacteria to host tissue is one of the first steps in the interaction, and, as with mammalian hosts, has shown to be mediated by a combination of non-specific and specific adhesin-mediated interactions. We took a high-throughput positive-selection approach to investigate adherence mechanisms for E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai by inoculating a BAC clone library onto spinach, which was quantified by microarray hybridisation and gene loci enrichment measured using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The screen involved four successive rounds of adherence to spinach roots, resulting in 115 CDS credible candidates, covered by seven contiguous genomic regions. Two candidates regions selected for functional assessment included a chaperone-usher fimbrial gene cluster (loc6) and the type two secretion system (T2SS). The TS22 was found to significantly enhance binding to spinach roots and leaves, demonstrated with a BAC-T2SS clone and by mutagenesis of the secretin protein, EtpD. Both etpD and the inner membrane anchor protein gene etpC were expressed at 18 degree celsius, and expression of etpD was demonstrated for STEC (Sakai) resident in the apoplastic spaces in spinach leaf tissue. Together, these data indicate a novel function for STEC T2SS in adherence to plant tissue. Experiment 1: screening E coli O157:H7 Sakai genes for adherence to spinach roots. A BAC library of Sakai clones in an E coli DH10B background (which has poor root adherence) defined as the 'Input pool', was incubated with spinach roots for 4 rounds of enrichment, defined as the 'Output pool'. Control samples (defined as 'Input control' & 'Output control') were cultures of pV41 vector only. DNA extractions from test pools were labelled with Cy3 throughout. DH10B DNA was used for grid alignment and labelled with Cy5 throughout.
Project description:1. A new method is described for the assay of ADP sulphurylase. The method involves sulphate-dependent [(32)P]P(i)-ADP exchange; the method is simpler, more sensitive and more direct than the method involving adenosine 5'-sulphatophosphate-dependent uptake of P(i). 2. ADP sulphurylase activity was demonstrated in crude extracts of leaf tissue from a range of plants. Crude spinach extract catalysed the sulphate-dependent synthesis of [(32)P]ADP from [(32)P]P(i); spinach extracts did not catalyse sulphate-dependent AMP-P(i), ADP-PP(i) or ATP-P(i) exchange under standard assay conditions. ADP sulphurylase activity in spinach leaf tissue was associated with chloroplasts and was liberated by sonication. 3. Some elementary kinetics of crude spinach leaf and purified yeast ADP sulphurylases in the standard assay are described; addition of Ba(2+) was necessary to minimize endogenous P(i)-ADP exchange of the yeast enzyme and crude extracts of winter-grown spinach. 4. Spinach leaf ADP sulphurylase was activated by Ba(2+) and Ca(2+); Mg(2+) was ineffective. The yeast enzyme was also activated by Ba(2+). The activity of both enzymes decreased with increasing ionic strength. 5. Purified yeast and spinach leaf ADP sulphurylases were sensitive to thiol-group reagents and fluoride. The pH optimum was 8. ATP inhibited sulphate-dependent P(i)-ADP exchange. Neither selenate nor molybdate inhibited sulphate-dependent P(i)-ADP exchange and crude spinach extracts did not catalyse selenate-dependent P(i)-ADP exchange. 6. The presence of ADP sulphurylase activity jeopardizes the enzymic synthesis of adenosine 5'-sulphatophosphate from ATP and sulphate with purified ATP sulphurylase and pyrophosphatase.