Project description:Explore DNA methylation in traumatic brain injury model of epilepsy and its relationship to gene expression. Examination of methylation changes in stimulated rats compared to sham operated animals in traumatic brain injury model of epilepsy.
Project description:Explore DNA methylation in traumatic brain injury model of epilepsy and its relationship to gene expression. Examination of expression changes in stimulated rats compared to sham operated animals in traumatic brain injury model of epilepsy.
Project description:Brain injury may result in the development of epilepsy, one of the most common neurological disorders. We previously demonstrated that albumin is critical in the generation of epilepsy after blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise. Here, we identify TGF-beta pathway activation as the underlying mechanism. We demonstrate that direct activation of the TGF-beta pathway by TGF-beta1 results in epileptiform activity similar to that after exposure to albumin. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed binding of albumin to TGF-beta receptor II, and Smad2 phosphorylation confirmed downstream activation of this pathway. Transcriptome profiling demonstrated similar expression patterns after BBB breakdown, albumin, and TGF-beta1 exposure, including modulation of genes associated with the TGF-beta pathway, early astrocytic activation, inflammation, and reduced inhibitory transmission. Importantly, TGF-beta pathway blockers suppressed most albumin-induced transcriptional changes and prevented the generation of epileptiform activity. Our present data identifies the TGF-beta pathway as a novel putative epileptogenic signaling cascade and therapeutic target for the prevention of injury-induced epilepsy.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury can cause loss of neuronal tissue, remote symptomatic epilepsy, and cognitive deficits. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of traumatic brain injury are not yet clear. Hippocampal excitability is strongly correlated with cognitive dysfunction and remote symptomatic epilepsy. In this study, we examined the relationship between traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal loss and subsequent hippocampal regional excitability. We used hydraulic percussion to generate a rat model of traumatic brain injury. At 7 days after injury, the mean modified neurological severity score was 9.5, suggesting that the neurological function of the rats was remarkably impaired. Electrophysiology and immunocytochemical staining revealed increases in the slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and long-term depression (indicating weakened long-term inhibition), and the numbers of cholecystokinin and parvalbumin immunoreactive cells were clearly reduced in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results indicate that interneuronal loss and changes in excitability occurred in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Thus, traumatic brain injury-induced loss of interneurons appears to be associated with reduced long-term depression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
Project description:The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried out Braak staging for Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary pathology using tau protein immunohistochemistry. The stages were compared with clinicopathological factors, including seizure history and presence of old traumatic brain injury. Overall, 31% of cases were Braak Stage 0, 36% Stage I/II, 31% Stage III/IV and 2% Stage V/VI. The mean age at death was 56.5 years and correlated with Braak stage (P < 0.001). Analysis of Braak stages within age groups showed a significant increase in mid-Braak stages (III/IV), in middle age (40-65 years) compared with data from an ageing non-epilepsy series (P < 0.01). There was no clear relationship between seizure type (generalized or complex partial), seizure frequency, age of onset and duration of epilepsy with Braak stage although higher Braak stages were noted with focal more than with generalized epilepsy syndromes (P < 0.01). In 30% of patients, there was pathological evidence of traumatic brain injury that was significantly associated with higher Braak stages (P < 0.001). Cerebrovascular disease present in 40.3% and cortical malformations in 11.3% were not significantly associated with Braak stage. Astrocytic-tau protein correlated with the presence of both traumatic brain injury (P < 0.01) and high Braak stage (P < 0.001). Hippocampal sclerosis, identified in 40% (bilateral in 48%), was not associated with higher Braak stages, but asymmetrical patterns of tau protein accumulation within the sclerotic hippocampus were noted. In over half of patients with cognitive decline, the Braak stage was low indicating causes other than Alzheimer's disease pathology. In summary, there is evidence of accelerated brain ageing in severe chronic epilepsy although progression to high Braak stages was infrequent. Traumatic brain injury, but not seizures, was associated with tau protein accumulation in this series. It is likely that Alzheimer's disease pathology is not the sole explanation for cognitive decline associated with epilepsy.
Project description:Currently, no reliable markers are available to evaluate the epileptogenic potential of a brain injury. The electroencephalogram is the standard method of diagnosis of epilepsy; however, it is not used to predict the risk of developing epilepsy. Biomarkers that indicate an individual's risk to develop epilepsy, especially those measurable in the periphery are urgently needed. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of acquired epilepsy, is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures following brain injury and a seizure-free "latent" period. Elucidation of mechanisms at play during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) in animal models of TLE could enable the identification of predictive biomarkers. Our pilot study using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis revealed changes (p-value???0.05, ?1.5-fold change) in lipid, purine, and sterol metabolism in rat plasma and hippocampus during epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy in the kainic acid model of TLE. Notably, disease development was associated with dysregulation of vitamin D3 metabolism at all stages and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 depletion in the acute and latent phase of injury-induced epileptogenesis. These data suggest that plasma VD3 metabolites reflect the severity of an epileptogenic insult and that a panel of plasma VD3 metabolites may be able to serve as a marker of epileptogenesis.
Project description:<label>Aims</label>Recent epidemiological studies have indicated that the incidence of epilepsy peaks after 60 years old, and epilepsy has become increasingly prevalent in elderly populations. The aim of this study is to identify the aetiologic characteristics of epilepsy in the elderly.<label>Methods</label>We retrospectively recruited elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy identified in three epilepsy centres in western China; elderly patients were defined as individuals aged 60 years or older. Demographic characteristics, clinical epilepsy data, and the diagnosis and aetiology of epilepsy were recorded.<label>Results</label>A total of 760 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy were enrolled in our study. Of these patients, 25% had experienced one or more episodes of status epilepticus, and 62.4% were confirmed as symptomatic. Among the symptomatic cohort, stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) were the two most common causes of epilepsy, followed by cerebral tumour, dementia, hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and central nervous system (CNS) infection. When analysed by residence and age, ischaemic stroke was the most common cause of epilepsy in urban patients, whereas traumatic brain injury was the leading cause of epilepsy in rural patients.<label>Conclusion</label>More than three-fifths of newly diagnosed epilepsy cases in elderly patients were confirmed as symptomatic, and stroke and traumatic brain injury were the primary aetiologies in elderly epileptic patients.
Project description:Epilepsy and traumatic brain injury are common neurological conditions, with general population prevalence estimates around 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Although both illnesses are associated with various adverse outcomes, and expert opinion has suggested increased criminality, links with violent behaviour remain uncertain.We combined Swedish population registers from 1973 to 2009, and examined associations of epilepsy (n?=?22,947) and traumatic brain injury (n?=?22,914) with subsequent violent crime (defined as convictions for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, or illegal threats or intimidation). Each case was age and gender matched with ten general population controls, and analysed using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for socio-demographic factors. In addition, we compared cases with unaffected siblings. Among the traumatic brain injury cases, 2,011 individuals (8.8%) committed violent crime after diagnosis, which, compared with population controls (n?=?229,118), corresponded to a substantially increased risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?3.3, 95% CI: 3.1-3.5); this risk was attenuated when cases were compared with unaffected siblings (aOR?=?2.0, 1.8-2.3). Among individuals with epilepsy, 973 (4.2%) committed a violent offense after diagnosis, corresponding to a significantly increased odds of violent crime compared with 224,006 population controls (aOR?=?1.5, 1.4-1.7). However, this association disappeared when individuals with epilepsy were compared with their unaffected siblings (aOR?=?1.1, 0.9-1.2). We found heterogeneity in violence risk by age of disease onset, severity, comorbidity with substance abuse, and clinical subgroups. Case ascertainment was restricted to patient registers.In this longitudinal population-based study, we found that, after adjustment for familial confounding, epilepsy was not associated with increased risk of violent crime, questioning expert opinion that has suggested a causal relationship. In contrast, although there was some attenuation in risk estimates after adjustment for familial factors and substance abuse in individuals with traumatic brain injury, we found a significantly increased risk of violent crime. The implications of these findings will vary for clinical services, the criminal justice system, and patient charities.
Project description:The ketogenic diet has long been used to treat epilepsy, but its mechanism is not yet clearly understood. To explore the potential mechanism, the changes in gene expression induced by the ketogenic diet in the rat kainic acid (KA) epilepsy model were analyzed. Two-condition experiment, Normal diet-fed rat brain vs. Ketogenic diet-fed rat brain. Duplicate per array
Project description:The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is an international, multicenter, multidisciplinary study aimed at preventing epileptogenesis (EpiBioS4Rx: https://epibios.loni.usc.edu/). One of the study's major objectives is the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive plasma protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that are sensitive, specific, and translatable to the human condition. Epilepsy due to structural brain abnormalities, secondary to neurological insults such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), currently represents ?50% of all epilepsy cases. In the preclinical EpiBioS4Rx study, TBI was induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats using a standardized protocol for lateral fluid-percussion injury. Whole blood was collected from the tail vein at baseline and 2, 9 and 30 days post-injury and processed for plasma separation. Biomaterial properties, sample preparation and integrity, and choice of analysis platform can significantly impact measured marker levels and, in turn, interpretation with respect to injury and/or other variables. We present here the results of procedural harmonization for the first 320 rats included in the EpiBioS4Rx study study, from three international research centers, and preliminary proteomic and miRNA analyses. We also discuss experimental considerations for establishing rigorous quality controls with the goal of harmonizing operating procedures across study sites, and delivering high-quality specimens for preclinical biomarker discovery in a rat model of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE).