Project description:Acromegaly is a disease mainly caused by pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET) overproducing growth hormone. First-line medication for this condition is the use of somatostatin analogs (SSAs), that decrease tumor mass and induce antiproliferative effects on PitNET cells. Dopamine agonists (DAs) can also be used if SSA treatment is not effective. This study aimed to determine differences in transcriptome signatures induced by SSA/DA therapy in PitNET tissue. We selected tumor tissue from twelve patients with somatotropinomas, with half of the patients receiving SSA/DA treatment before surgery and the other half treatment naive. Transcriptome sequencing was then carried out to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their protein-protein interactions, using pathway analyses. We found 34 upregulated and six downregulated DEGs in patients with SSA/DA treatment. Three tumor development promoting factors <i>MUC16, MACC1</i>, and <i>GRHL2</i>, were significantly downregulated in therapy administered PitNET tissue; this finding was supported by functional studies in GH3 cells. Protein-protein interactions and pathway analyses revealed extracellular matrix involvement in the antiproliferative effects of this type of the drug treatment, with pronounced alterations in collagen regulation. Here, we have demonstrated that somatotropinomas can be distinguished based on their transcriptional profiles following SSA/DA therapy, and SSA/DA treatment does indeed cause changes in gene expression. Treatment with SSA/DA significantly downregulated several factors involved in tumorigenesis, including <i>MUC16, MACC1</i>, and <i>GRHL2.</i> Genes that were upregulated, however, did not have a direct influence on antiproliferative function in the PitNET cells. These findings suggested that SSA/DA treatment acted in a tumor suppressive manner and furthermore, collagen related interactions and pathways were enriched, implicating extracellular matrix involvement in this anti-tumor effect of drug treatment.
Project description:Acromegaly due to ectopic GHRH secretion from a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is rare and comprises <1% of all acromegaly cases. Herein we present a 57-year-old woman with clinical and biochemical features of acromegaly and a 6 cm pancreatic NET (pNET), secreting GHRH and calcitonin. Following surgical resection of the pancreatic tumor, IGF1, GH and calcitonin normalized, and the clinical features of acromegaly improved. In vitro studies confirmed that the tumor secreted large amounts of both GHRH and calcitonin, and incubation of pNET culture-derived conditioned media stimulated GH release from a cultured human pituitary adenoma. This is a unique case of pNET secreting both GHRH and calcitonin. The ability of the pNET-derived medium to stimulate in vitro GH release from a human pituitary-cell culture, combined with the clinical and hormonal remission following tumor resection, confirmed the ectopic source of acromegaly in this patient.Signs, symptoms and initial work-up of acromegaly due to ectopic GHRH secretion are similar to pituitary-dependent acromegaly. However, if no identifiable pituitary lesion is found, somatostatin receptor scan and further imaging (CT, MRI) should be performed.Detection of GHRH in the blood and in the tumor-derived medium supports the diagnosis of ectopic GHRH secretion.Functional bioactivity of pNET-secreted GHRH can be proved in vitro by releasing GH from human pituitary cells.
Project description:Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disorder resulting from excessive growth hormone (GH) production by a pituitary somatotroph tumor. The objective of this study was to examine acromegaly treatment outcomes during long-term care at a specialized pituitary center in patients presenting with lack of biochemical control.Data came from an acromegaly registry at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Pituitary Center (center). Acromegaly patients included in this study were those who presented biochemically-uncontrolled for care at the center. Biochemical control status, based on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 values, was determined at presentation and at study end. Patient characteristics and acromegaly treatments were reported before and after presentation by presenting treatment status and final biochemical control status. Data on long-term follow-up were recorded from 1985 through June 2013.Seventy-four patients presented uncontrolled: 40 untreated (54.1%) and 34 (45.9%) previously-treated. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 43.2 (14.7); 32 (43.2%) were female patients. Of 65 patients with tumor size information, 59 (90.8%) had macroadenomas. Prior treatments among the 34 previously-treated patients were pituitary surgery alone (47.1%), surgery and medication (41.2%), and medication alone (11.8%). Of the 40 patients without prior treatment, 82.5% achieved control by study end. Of the 34 with prior treatment, 50% achieved control by study end.This observational study shows that treatment outcomes of biochemically-uncontrolled acromegaly patients improve with directed care, particularly for those that initially present untreated. Patients often require multiple modalities of treatment, many of which are offered with the highest quality at specialized pituitary centers. Despite specialized care, some patients were not able to achieve biochemical control with methods of treatment that were available at the time of their treatment, showing the need for additional treatment options.
Project description:Non-tumoural cells within the tumour microenvironment (TME) influence tumour proliferation, invasiveness and angiogenesis. Little is known about TME in pituitary neuroendocrine tumours (PitNETs). We aimed to characterise the role of TME in the aggressive behaviour of PitNETs, focusing on immune cells and cytokines. The cytokine secretome of 16 clinically non-functioning PitNETs (NF-PitNETs) and 8 somatotropinomas was assessed in primary culture using an immunoassay panel with 42 cytokines. This was correlated with macrophage (CD68, HLA-DR, CD163), T-lymphocyte (CD8, CD4, FOXP3), B-lymphocyte (CD20), neutrophil (neutrophil elastase) and endothelial cells (CD31) content, compared to normal pituitaries (NPs, n?=?5). In vitro tumour-macrophage interactions were assessed by conditioned medium (CM) of GH3 (pituitary tumour) and RAW264.7 (macrophage) cell lines on morphology, migration/invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cytokine secretion. IL-8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10, CCL22 and CXCL1 are the main PitNET-derived cytokines. PitNETs with increased macrophage and neutrophil content had higher IL-8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL1 levels. CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated to higher CCL2, CCL4 and VEGF-A levels. PitNETs had more macrophages than NPs (p?<?0.001), with a 3-fold increased CD163:HLA-DR macrophage ratio. PitNETs contained more CD4+ T-lymphocytes (p?=?0.005), but fewer neutrophils (p?=?0.047) with a 2-fold decreased CD8:CD4 ratio. NF-PitNETs secreted more cytokines and had 9 times more neutrophils than somatotropinomas (p?=?0.002). PitNETs with higher Ki-67 had more FOXP3+ T cells, as well as lower CD68:FOXP3, CD8:CD4 and CD8:FOXP3 ratios. PitNETs with "deleterious immune phenotype" (CD68hiCD4hiFOXP3hiCD20hi) had a Ki-67???3%. CD163:HLA-DR macrophage ratio was positively correlated with microvessel density (p?=?0.015) and area (p?<?0.001). GH3 cell-CM increased macrophage chemotaxis, while macrophage-CM changed morphology, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and secreted cytokines of GH3 cells. PitNETs are characterised by increased CD163:HLA-DR macrophage and reduced CD8:CD4 and CD8:FOXP3 T cell ratios. PitNET-derived chemokines facilitate macrophage, neutrophil and T cell recruitment into the tumours which can determine aggressive behaviour.
Project description:People with pituitary disease report impairments in quality of life. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of the pituitary condition on the lives of partners. Four focus groups of partners of people with pituitary disease (Cushing's disease, non-functioning adenoma, acromegaly, prolactinoma) were conducted. Partners mentioned worries related to the pituitary disease and negative beliefs about medication, coping challenges, relationship issues, social issues and unmet needs regarding care. This study emphasizes the importance of not only paying attention to psychosocial well-being of people with pituitary disease but also to their partners.
Project description:The myosin superfamily of molecular motor proteins includes conventional myosins and several classes of unconventional myosins. Recent studies have characterized the human and mouse unconventional myosin XVA, which has a role in the formation and/or maintenance of the unique actin-rich structures of inner ear sensory hair cells. Myosin XVA is also highly expressed in human anterior pituitary cells. In this study we examined the distribution of myosin XVA protein and mRNA in normal and neoplastic human pituitaries and other neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Myosin XVA was expressed in all types of normal anterior pituitary cells and pituitary tumors and in other neuroendocrine cells and tumors including those of the adrenal medulla, parathyroid, and pancreatic islets. Most nonneuroendocrine tissues examined including liver cells were negative for myosin XVA protein and mRNA, although the distal and proximal tubules of normal kidneys showed moderate immunoreactivity for myosin XVA. Ultrastructural immunohistochemistry localized myosin XVA in association with secretory granules of human anterior pituitary cells and human pituitary tumors. These data suggest that in neuroendocrine cells myosin XVA may have a role in secretory granule movement and/or secretion.
Project description:Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) originate from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. These can arise in almost every organ of the body, although they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. The skull base and sellar region are extremely rare sites for neuroendocrine carcinoma. Consequently, in this case, both diagnosis and definition of surgical goals, as well as further treatment strategies were challenging.A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our Neurosurgery Department with a rapidly progressive visus reduction, drowsiness, polyuria, and polydipsia. Neuroimaging showed a sellar/suprasellar mass (diameter of 2 cm) with a heterogeneous signal compressing the optic chiasm and extending laterally toward the cavernous sinus. Differential diagnosis based on imaging included pituitary macroadenoma or metastasis. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. A total resection of the mass was impossible because of the infiltration of the optic chiasm and the intraoperative histological diagnosis of malignant epithelial neoplasm. Further histological evaluation revealed that the lesion was a NET with no other primary or metastatic sites detectable. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated with fractioned stereotactic radiotherapy and polychemotherapy. Four years after the surgery, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed stability of the residual disease. Neurologic examination revealed a complete visual recovery.Primary pituitary NET, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. A multimodality treatment approach is needed. Finally, the present case highlights, that in the case of a pituitary lesion infiltrating the optic chiasm, including NET, the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal subtotal resection followed by fractioned stereotactic radiotherapy and chemotherapy may represent an effective and safe choice of treatment.
Project description:Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a group of complex heterogeneous and increasingly prevalent neoplasms. They arise from diverse body regions, share derivation from primitive neuronal stem cells, secrete various bioactive peptides and exhibit a wide spectrum of tumor behavior from relatively indolent to rapidly progressive. Pituitary tumors represent 20% of intracranial tumors and share some features of NET histo-pathologic morphology, their excess hormone production and some have proposed re-naming pituitary tumors as PitNETs. However there has been no precise cell type composition comparison at the whole genome level in these two types of tumors. To explore intratumoral heterogeneity at a single cell resolution in pituitary and pancreatic NETs, we employed single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze in parallel cell populations from surgically resected pituitary tumors (n=4) and pancreatic NETs (pNET, n=2) using a 10x Genomics platform (v3). Using Cell Ranger pipeline for alignment and mapping, we obtained an average of 8,306±2,519 cells/sample with 1,516±822 genes/cell (mean reads/cell 67.9±30K). Seurat v3 was then used for read pre-filtering, normalization, and cluster identification. We identified 5 genes commonly expressed in both pNET and pituitary tumor populations, namely CALY (clathrin light chain binding GO:0032051), SPINT (peptidase inhibitor activity GO:0030414), CHGB (hormone activity GO:0005179), SCG5 (GTP binding GO:0005525) and SEZ6L2. As proof of their oral epidermal embryonic origin, the commonly expressed genes in 4 pituitary tumor samples include pituitary tissue restricted transcription factors (POU1F1, BEX1/2 GO:0033613), GNAS (G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding GO:0031683), NLRP1 (peptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0016505), PTN (protein phosphatase regulator activity GO:0019888) and ATP6V1G1 (ATPase binding GO:0051117). In parallel, 71 genes were present at high levels in pNET and involved in molecular functions such as calcium ion binding (HSPA5; ENPP2; C2CD4B; CALR; HSP90B1 GO:0005509) and endopeptidase inhibitor activity (PCSK1N; WFDC2 GO:0004866). Although our exploratory findings are limited to 6 samples, the robust commonly expressed genes within each tumor type clearly separated pituitary and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into distinct entities. We did observe conservation of chromogranins and prohormone convertases in these two tumor types, but it only represented a very small portion of overlap in transcriptome in pNETs. In summary, our findings suggest that pituitary and neuroendocrine tumors have only limited common molecular features, and by and large they stand as separate biologic populations. Our observations may begin to provide insight into the differences in tumor progression that are encountered clinically between pituitary tumors and pancreatic NETs.
Project description:PURPOSE:Pituitary gangliocytomas (GCs) are rare neuronal tumors that present with endocrinological disorders, such as acromegaly, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and Cushing's disease. Most pituitary GCs coexist with pituitary adenomas pathologically and are diagnosed as mixed gangliocytoma-adenomas. Herein, we report a case of 45-year-old man who presented with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (SITSH) and discuss the pathogenesis of pituitary GCs. METHODS:Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8-mm homogeneous and poorly enhanced mass inside the pituitary gland. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of thyrotroph adenoma. However, the tumor was finally diagnosed as gangliocytoma without an adenomatous component. The tumor was further analyzed via immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Additionally, we searched MEDLINE and PubMed for previously published cases of isolated pituitary GCs and analyzed the reported clinicopathological findings. RESULTS:The patient showed complete clinical and endocrinological recovery after an operation. The tumor was positive for thyrotropin (TSH), TSH-releasing hormone (TRH), Pit-1, GATA-2, and most neuronal markers. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of intracytoplasmic secretory granules and neuronal processes. Co-secreting hypothalamic and pituitary hormone inside the tumor indicated autocrine/paracrine endocrinological stimulation. CONCLUSION:Herein, we report a case of SITSH caused by an isolated pituitary gangliocytoma, expressing both TSH and TRH, which, to our best knowledge, is the first reported case of such a condition. The multidirectional differentiation and multihormonal endocrine characteristics of these tumors indicate that they are a member of neuroendocrine neoplasms, further supporting that they are derived from neural crest cells.
Project description:Adenohypophyseal tumors, which were recently renamed pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNET), are mostly benign, but may present various behaviors: invasive, "aggressive" and malignant with metastases. They are classified into seven morphofunctional types and three lineages: lactotroph, somatotroph and thyrotroph (PIT1 lineage), corticotroph (TPIT lineage) or gonadotroph (SF1 lineage), null cell or immunonegative tumor and plurihormonal tumors. The WHO 2017 classification suggested that subtypes, such as male lactotroph, silent corticotroph and Crooke cell, sparsely granulated somatotroph, and silent plurihormonal PIT1 positive tumors, should be considered as "high risk" tumors. However, the prognostic impact of these subtypes and of each morphologic type remains controversial. In contrast, the French five-tiered classification, taking into account the invasion, the immuno-histochemical (IHC) type, and the proliferative markers (Ki-67 index, mitotic count, p53 positivity), has a prognostic value validated by statistical analysis in 4 independent cohorts. A standardized report for the diagnosis of pituitary tumors, integrating all these parameters, has been proposed by the European Pituitary Pathology Group (EPPG). In 2020, the pituitary pathologist must be considered as a member of the multidisciplinary pituitary team. The pathological diagnosis may help the clinician to adapt the post-operative management, including appropriate follow-up and early recognition and treatment of potentially aggressive forms.