Project description:The Botryosphaeriaceae includes several species that are serious canker and leaf pathogens of Proteaceae. In the present study, sequence data for the ITS nrDNA region were used in conjunction with morphological observations to resolve the taxonomy of species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Proteaceae. Neofusicoccum luteum was confirmed from Buckinghamia and Banksia in Australia, and on Protea cynaroides in South Africa. A major pathogen of Banksia coccinea in Australia was shown to be N. australe and not N. luteum as previously reported. Neofusicoccum protearum was previously reported on Proteaceae from Australia, Madeira, Portugal and South Africa, and is shown here to also occur in Hawaii and Tenerife (Canary Islands). Furthermore, several previous records of N. ribis on Proteaceae were shown to be N. parvum. Saccharata capensis is described as a new species that is morphologically similar to S.proteae. There is no information currently available regarding its potential importance as plant pathogen and pathogenicity tests should be conducted with it in the future.
Project description:Botryosphaeria dieback caused by several Botryosphaeriaceae species is one of the most important grapevine trunk diseases affecting vineyards worldwide. These fungi cause wedge-shaped perennial cankers and black streaking of the wood and have also been associated with intervein leaf chlorosis, dried or mummified berries, and eventually, the death of the plant. Early season symptoms may sometimes be disregarded by growers, being mistaken with symptoms from other diseases such as downy mildew or botrytis rot. Currently, few studies are available to determine what species may be causing these early season symptoms in grapevines. During the 2018 season, during the flowering period, grapevine samples showing necrosis on green shoots, dried inflorescences, and flowers, were collected in vineyards throughout the central regions of Portugal. Isolations were performed from symptomatic organs, and twenty-three isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were selected. An analysis of the ITS and part of the translation elongation factor 1-? sequences was performed, revealing that the two main species apparently responsible for these symptoms were Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum. In pathogenicity tests conducted on 1-year-old plants grown under controlled conditions in a greenhouse and on field-grown clusters, symptoms were reproduced, confirming the pathogenic behavior of the selection of isolates.
Project description:Several Botryosphaeriaceae species are known to occur worldwide, causing dieback, canker and fruit rot on various hosts. Surveys conducted in ten commercial citrus orchards in the northern region of Algeria revealed five species of Botryosphaeriaceae belonging to three genera associated with diseased trees. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?) identified Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella viticola, Lasiodiplodia mediterranea and a novel species which is here described as Lasiodiplodia mithidjana sp. nov.. Of these, L. mithidjana (14.1% of the samples) and L. mediterranea (13% of the samples) were the most widespread and abundant species. Pathogenicity tests revealed that L. mediterranea and D. seriata were the most aggressive species on citrus shoots. This study highlights the importance of Botryosphaeriaceae species as agents of canker and dieback of citrus trees in Algeria.
Project description:The genus Artemisia, a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on the fungal endophytes in Artemisia species, both fungal phylogenetic diversity and the associated bioactivity was examined. Isolations from 14 species of Artemisia have led to 51 genera of fungal endophytes, 28 families, and 18 orders. Endophytes belonged mainly to Ascomycota, except for two taxa of Cantharellales and Sporidiobolales, one taxon of Mucoromycota, and one species of Oomycota. The mostly common families were Pleosporaceae, Trichocomaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, and Botryosphaeriaceae (relative abundance = 14.89, 8.51, 7.14 and 6.38, respectively). In the search for bioactive metabolites, 27 novel compounds were characterized and 22 metabolites were isolated between 2006 and 2017. The first study on endophytic fungi isolated from species of Artemisia was published but 18 years ago. This summary of recently acquired data illustrates the considerable diversity of biological purposes addressed by fungal endophytes of Artemisia spp.
Project description:The Botryosphaeriaceae accommodates many important pathogens of woody plants, including Eucalyptus. Recently, Botryosphaeriaceae were isolated from diseased plant parts from surveys of Eucalyptus plantations in the YunNan Province, China. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to evaluate their pathogenicity to Eucalyptus. A total of 166 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained from six regions in the YunNan Province, of which 76 were from Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis hybrids, 49 from E. globulus trees, and 41 isolates were from other unknown Eucalyptus species or hybrids. Isolates were identified by comparing DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal RNA locus (ITS), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), ?-tubulin 2 (tub2) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) genes, and combined with their morphological characteristics. Eleven species were identified, including Botryosphaeria fusispora, B. wangensis, Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense, N. parvum, and six novel species described as B. puerensis, N. dianense, N. magniconidium, N. ningerense, N. parviconidium and N. yunnanense. The dominant species across the regions were N. yunnanense, N. parvum and B. wangensis, representing 31.3, 25.3 and 19.9% of the total isolates, respectively. Species diversity and composition changed across the different climatic zones, despite their relatively close geographic proximity and the fact that some of the species have a global distribution. All the Botryosphaeriaceae species were pathogenic to one-year-old plants of an E. urophylla × E. grandis clone and E. globulus seed-derived plants, but showed significant inter- and intra-species variation in aggressiveness amongst isolates. The study provides a foundation for monitoring and management of Botryosphaeriaceae through selection and breeding of Eucalyptus in the YunNan Province of southwestern China.
Project description:Grapevine trunk diseases: Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback, which incidence has increased recently, are associated with several symptoms finally leading to the plant death. In the absence of efficient treatments, these diseases are a major problem for the viticulture; however, the factors involved in disease progression are not still fully identified. In order to get a better understanding of Botryosphaeria dieback development in grapevine, we have investigated different factors involved in Botryosphaeriaceae fungi aggressiveness. We first evaluated the activity of the wood-degrading enzymes of different isolates of Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata, two major fungi associated with Botryosphaeria dieback. We further examinated the ability of these fungi to metabolize major grapevine phytoalexins: resveratrol and ?-viniferin. Our results demonstrate that Botryosphaeriaceae were characterized by differential wood decay enzymatic activities and have the capacity to rapidly degrade stilbenes. N. parvum is able to degrade parietal polysaccharides, whereas D. seriata has a better capacity to degrade lignin. Growth of both fungi exhibited a low sensitivity to resveratrol, whereas ?-viniferin has a fungistatic effect, especially on N. parvum Bourgogne S-116. We further show that Botryosphaeriaceae are able to metabolize rapidly resveratrol and ?-viniferin. The best stilbene metabolizing activity was measured for D. seriata. In conclusion, the different Botryosphaeriaceae isolates are characterized by a specific aggressiveness repertory. Wood and phenolic compound decay enzymatic activities could enable Botryosphaeriaceae to bypass chemical and physical barriers of the grapevine plant. The specific signature of Botryosphaeriaceae aggressiveness factors could explain the importance of fungi complexes in synergistic activity in order to fully colonize the host.
Project description:Botryosphaeriaceae are an important fungal family that cause woody plant diseases worldwide. Recent studies have established a correlation between environmental factors and disease expression; however, less is known about factors that trigger these diseases. The current study reports on the 43.3?Mb de novo genome of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and five other genomes of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens. Botryosphaeriaceous genomes showed an expansion of gene families associated with cell wall degradation, nutrient uptake, secondary metabolism and membrane transport, which contribute to adaptations for wood degradation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism, pectin, starch and sucrose metabolism, and pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathways were induced during infection. Furthermore, genes in carbohydrate-binding modules, lysine motif domain and the glycosyl hydrolase gene families were induced by high temperature. Among these genes, overexpression of two selected putative lignocellulase genes led to increased virulence in the transformants. These results demonstrate the importance of high temperatures in opportunistic infections. This study also presents a set of Botryosphaeriaceae-specific effectors responsible for the identification of virulence-related pathogen-associated molecular patterns and demonstrates their active participation in suppressing hypersensitive responses. Together, these findings significantly expand our understanding of the determinants of pathogenicity or virulence in Botryosphaeriaceae and provide new insights for developing management strategies against them.
Project description:Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are common plant pathogens and saprobes found on a variety of mainly woody hosts. Teleomorphs typically have hyaline, aseptate ascospores. However, some have been reported with brown ascospores and their taxonomic status is uncertain. A multi-gene approach (SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-alpha and beta-tubulin) was used to resolve the correct phylogenetic position of the dark-spored 'Botryosphaeria' teleomorphs and related asexual species. Neodeightonia and Phaeobotryon are reinstated for species with brown ascospores that are either 1-septate (Neodeightonia) or 2-septate (Phaeobotryon). Phaeobotryosphaeria is reinstated for species with brown, aseptate ascospores that bear an apiculus at either end. The status of Sphaeropsis is clarified and shown to be the anamorph of Phaeobotryosphaeria. Two new genera, namely Barriopsis for species having brown, aseptate ascospores without apiculi and Spencermartinsia for species having brown, 1-septate ascospores with an apiculus at either end are introduced. Species of Dothiorella have brown, 1-septate ascospores and differ from Spencermartinsia in the absence of apiculi. These six genera can also be distinguished from one another based on morphological characters of their anamorphs. Although previously placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Dothidotthia, was shown to belong in the Pleosporales, and the new family Dothidotthiaceae is introduced to accommodate it.
Project description:Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesizes the current understanding of B. dothidea pertaining to its distribution, host associations and role as a pathogen in managed and natural woody environments. The prolonged latent infection or endophytic phase is of particular importance, as it implies that the fungus can easily pass undetected by quarantine systems in traded living plants, fruits and other plant parts. Infections typically become obvious only under conditions of host stress, when disease symptoms develop. This study also considers the knowledge emerging from the recently sequenced B. dothidea genome, elucidating previously unknown aspects of the species, including mating and host infection strategies. Despite more than 150 years of research on B. dothidea, there is clearly much to be learned regarding this global tree pathogen. This is increasingly important given the stresses imposed on various woody hosts as a result of climate change. TAXONOMY:Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr) Ces. & De Not, 1863. Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Dothideomycetes, Order Botryosphaeriales, Family Botryosphaeriaceae, Genus Botryosphaeria, Species dothidea. HOST RANGE:Confirmed on more than 24 host genera, including woody plants, such as Acacia (= Vachellia), Eucalyptus, Vitis and Pistachio. DISEASE SYMPTOMS:Associated with twig, branch and stem cankers, tip and branch dieback, fruit rot, blue stain and plant death. USEFUL WEBSITES:The Botryosphaeria site for detailed morphological descriptions (http://www.crem.fct.unl.pt/botryosphaeria_site/); Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory Fungal Database for all literature and associated hosts (https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/); TreeBASE link for the combined ITS and TEF-1? tree (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S18906); DOE Joint Genome Institute, JGI Mycocosm for the Botryosphaeria dothidea genome (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov/Botdo1_1/Botdo1_1.home.html).