Project description:Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%.
Project description:To determine the physiological functions of a novel death-specific protein gene, Skeletonema costatum DSP-1 (ScDSP-1) in a marine diatom, Skeletonema costatum, the mRNA abundance of ScDSP-1 was measured in cultures subjected to light manipulation and treatments with various chemicals. When cells were transferred to a dim light intensity of 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1), ScDSP-1 mRNA levels showed a transient increase of 1 to 17.2 micromol (mol 18S rRNA)(-1) in 60 h. Furthermore, treatments with the photoinhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB) resulted in high ScDSP-1 mRNA levels, which reached 943 and 72 micromol (mol 18S rRNA)(-1), respectively. Treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) donor diethylamine nitric oxide also induced ScDSP-1 expression, and this inducible expression was inhibited by the NO scavenger hemoglobin. Additionally, the expression of ScDSP-1 mRNA elicited by DCMU and DBMIB was efficiently reduced when cultures were pretreated with the cell-penetrating NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. In contrast, treatment with another photoinhibitor, paraquat, had no effect on ScDSP-1 expression. Our results indicated that NO is the crucial secondary messenger which signals the expression of ScDSP-1 when electron flow between photosystem II and photosystem I is blocked in S. costatum cells. In addition, the discovery of a similar gene, ScDSP-2, is briefly described.
Project description:Phosphorus (P) is a limiting macronutrient for diatom growth and productivity in the ocean. Much effort has been devoted to the physiological response of marine diatoms to ambient P change, however, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-Seq to compare the global gene expression patterns of a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum grown in inorganic P-replete, P-deficient, and inorganic- and organic-P resupplied conditions. In total 34,942 unique genes were assembled and 20.8% of them altered significantly in abundance under different P conditions. Genes encoding key enzymes/proteins involved in P utilization, nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis, glycolysis, and cell cycle regulation were significantly up-regulated in P-deficient cells. Genes participating in circadian rhythm regulation, such as circadian clock associated 1, were also up-regulated in P-deficient cells. The response of S. costatum to ambient P deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of other marine diatom species, but also has its unique features. S. costatum has evolved the ability to re-program its circadian clock and intracellular biological processes in response to ambient P deficiency. This study provides new insights into the adaptive mechanisms to ambient P deficiency in marine diatoms.
Project description:A novel death-specific gene, ScDSP, was obtained from a death stage subtraction cDNA library of the diatom Skeletonema costatum. The full length of ScDSP cDNA was 921 bp in length, containing a 699-bp open reading frame encoding 232 amino acids and two stretches of 66 and 156 bp in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions, respectively. Analysis of the peptide structure revealed that ScDSP contained a signal peptide domain, a transmembrane domain, and a pair of EF-hand motifs. When S. costatum grew exponentially at a rate of 1.3 day(-1), the ScDSP mRNA level was at 2 mumol . mole 18S rRNA(-1). In contrast, when the culture entered the death phase with a growth rate decreasing to 0.5 day(-1), ScDSP mRNA increased dramatically to 668 mumol . mole 18S rRNA(-1), and a high degree of DNA fragmentation was simultaneously observed. Under the influence of a light-dark cycle, ScDSP expression in both exponential and stationary phases clearly showed a diel rhythm, but the daily mean mRNA level was significantly higher in the stationary phase. Our results suggest that ScDSP may play a role in the molecular mechanism of self-destructive autolysis in phytoplankton under stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diatoms play a great role in carbon fixation with about 20% of the whole fixation in the world. However, harmful algal bloom as known as red tide is a major problem in environment and fishery industry. Even though intensive studies have been conducted so far, the molecular mechanism behind harmful algal bloom was not fully understood. There are two major diatoms have been sequenced, but more diatoms should be examined at the whole genome level, and evolutionary genome studies were required to understand the landscape of molecular mechanism of the harmful algal bloom. RESULTS:Here we sequenced the genome of Skeletonema costatum, which is the dominant diatom in Japan causing a harmful algal bloom, and also performed RNA-sequencing analysis for conditions where harmful algal blooms often occur. As results, we found that both evolutionary genomic and comparative transcriptomic studies revealed genes for oxidative stress response and response to cytokinin is a key for the proliferation of the diatom. CONCLUSIONS:Diatoms causing harmful algal blooms have gained multi-copy of genes related to oxidative stress response and response to cytokinin and obtained an ability to intensive gene expression at the blooms.