Project description:De novo assembled transcriptomes, in combination with RNA-Seq, are powerful tools to explore gene sequence and expression level in organisms without reference genomes. Investigators must first choose which high throughput sequencing platforms will provide data most suitable for their experimental goals. In this study, we explore the utility of 454 and Illumina sequences for de novo transcriptome assembly and downstream RNA-Seq applications in a reproductive gland from a non-model bird species, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Four transcriptomes composed of either pure 454 or Illumina reads or mixtures of read types were assembled and evaluated for the same cost. Illumina assemblies performed best for de novo transcriptome characterization in terms of contig length, transcriptome coverage, and complete assembly of gene transcripts. Improvements over the Hybrid assembly were marginal, with the exception that the addition of 454 data significantly increased the number of genes annotated. The Illumina assembly provided the best reference to align an independent set of RNA-Seq data as ?84% of reads mapped to single genes in the transcriptome. Contigs constructed solely from 454 data may impose problems for RNA-Seq as our 454 transcriptome revealed a high number of indels and many ambiguously mapped reads. Correcting the 454 transcriptome with Illumina reads was an effective strategy to deal with indel and frameshift errors inherent to the 454 transcriptome, but at the cost of transcriptome coverage. In the absence of a reference genome, we find that Illumina reads alone produced a high quality transcriptome appropriate for RNA-Seq gene expression analyses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Passiflora edulis, known as passion fruit and native to South America, is now widely cultivated throughout southern China for its edible value, medicinal efficacy and ornamental properties. We have developed a cold-tolerant variety of P. edulis ('Pingtang 1') that can survive subzero temperatures and is highly adaptable in Karst areas. In this study, cuttings of 'Pingtang 1' were cultivated in a limestone (L) rocky desertification area and a sandy dolomite (D) rock desertification area. Changes in nutrient elements in both the soils and plants were revealed in the two plots. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to profile the root transcriptomes for further exploration of nutrient adaptative mechanism of Passiflora edulis in Karst regions. RESULTS:In this study, a total of, 244,705,162 clean reads were generated from four cDNA libraries and assembled into 84,198 unigenes, of which 56,962 were annotated by publicly available databases. Transcriptome profiles were generated, and 1314 unigenes (531 upregulated and 801 downregulated) were significantly differentially expressed between the L and D root cDNA libraries (L_R and D_R, respectively); these profiles provide a global overview of the gene expression patterns associated with P. edulis adaptability to Karst soils. Most unigenes including a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in nutrient element uptake, utilization, signal regulation. And DEGs enriched in KEGG pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were significantly expressed. CONCLUSION:These results could contribute to better understanding the adaptation of this species to environmental stress and thus enhance the potential for successfully introducing and commercially deploying P. edulis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rapid advances in next-generation sequencing methods have provided new opportunities for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). The unprecedented sequencing depth provided by RNA-Seq makes it a powerful and cost-efficient method for transcriptome study, and it has been widely used in model organisms and non-model organisms to identify and quantify RNA. For non-model organisms lacking well-defined genomes, de novo assembly is typically required for downstream RNA-Seq analyses, including SNP discovery and identification of genes differentially expressed by phenotypes. Although RNA-Seq has been successfully used to sequence many non-model organisms, the results of de novo assembly from short reads can still be improved by using recent bioinformatic developments. RESULTS: In this study, we used 212.6 million pair-end reads, which accounted for 16.2 Gb, to assemble the hexaploid wheat transcriptome. Two state-of-the-art assemblers, Trinity and Trans-ABySS, which use the single and multiple k-mer methods, respectively, were used, and the whole de novo assembly process was divided into the following four steps: pre-assembly, merging different samples, removal of redundancy and scaffolding. We documented every detail of these steps and how these steps influenced assembly performance to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimization, the assembled transcripts were comparable to Sanger-derived ESTs in terms of both continuity and accuracy. We also provided considerable new wheat transcript data to the community. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to assemble the hexaploid wheat transcriptome from short reads. Special attention should be paid to dealing with multiple samples to balance the spectrum of expression levels and redundancy. To obtain an accurate overview of RNA profiling, removal of redundancy may be crucial in de novo assembly.
Project description:Gene losses in plastid genomes (plastomes) are often accompanied by functional transfer to the nucleus or substitution of an alternative nuclear-encoded gene. Despite the highly conserved gene content in plastomes of photosynthetic land plants, recent gene loss events have been documented in several disparate angiosperm clades. Among these lineages, Passiflora lacks several essential ribosomal genes, rps7, rps16, rpl20, rpl22, and rpl32, the two largest plastid genes, ycf1 and ycf2, and has a highly divergent rpoA. Comparative transcriptome analyses were performed to determine the fate of the missing genes in Passiflora. Putative functional transfers of rps7, rpl22, and rpl32 to nucleus were detected, with the nuclear transfer of rps7, representing a novel event in angiosperms. Plastid-encoded rps7 was transferred into the intron of a nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted thioredoxin m-type gene, acquiring its plastid transit peptide (TP). Plastid rpl20 likely experienced a novel substitution by a duplicated, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial-targeted rpl20 that has a similar gene structure. Additionally, among rosids, evidence for a third independent transfer of rpl22 in Passiflora was detected that gained a TP from a nuclear gene containing an organelle RNA recognition motif. Nuclear transcripts representing rpoA, ycf1, and ycf2 were not detected. Further analyses suggest that the divergent rpoA remains functional and that the gene is under positive or purifying selection in different clades. Comparative analyses indicate that alternative translocon and motor protein complexes may have substituted for the loss of ycf1 and ycf2 in Passiflora.