Project description:Nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria are widespread in the environment contribute to nitrate removal and influence the fate of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. The autotrophic growth of nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria is rarely investigated and poorly understood. The most prominent model system for this type of studies is enrichment culture KS, which originates from a freshwater sediment in Bremen, Germany. To gain insights in the metabolism of nitrate reduction coupled to iron(II) oxidation under in the absence of organic carbon and oxygen limited conditions, we performed metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic analyses of culture KS. Raw sequencing data of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics (short reads: Illumina; long reads: Oxford Nanopore Technologies), metagenome assembly, raw sequencing data of shotgun metatranscriptomes (2 conditions, triplicates) can be found at SRA in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA682552. This dataset contains proteomics data for 2 conditions (heterotrophic and autotrophic growth conditions) in triplicates.
Project description:Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats.IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic (their growth depends on organic cosubstrates) and can become encrusted in Fe(III) minerals. Encrustation is expected to be harmful and poses a threat to cells if it also occurs under environmentally relevant conditions. Nitrite produced during heterotrophic denitrification reacts with Fe(II) abiotically and is probably the reason for encrustation in mixotrophic NRFeOB. Little is known about cell-mineral associations in autotrophic NRFeOB such as the enrichment culture KS. Here, we show that no encrustation occurs in culture KS under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions while heterotrophic nitrate-reducing isolates from culture KS become encrusted. These findings support the hypothesis that encrustation in mixotrophic cultures is caused by the abiotic reaction of Fe(II) with nitrite and provide evidence that Fe(II) oxidation in culture KS is enzymatic. Furthermore, we show that the extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible in most environmental habitats.
Project description:Most isolated nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are mixotrophic, meaning that Fe(II) is chemically oxidized by nitrite that forms during heterotrophic denitrification, and it is debated to which extent Fe(II) is enzymatically oxidized. One exception is the chemolithoautotrophic enrichment culture KS, a consortium consisting of a dominant Fe(II) oxidizer, Gallionellaceae sp., and less abundant heterotrophic strains (e.g., Bradyrhizobium sp., Nocardioides sp.). Currently, this is the only nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing culture for which autotrophic growth has been demonstrated convincingly for many transfers over more than 2 decades. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and physiological growth experiments to analyze the community composition and dynamics of culture KS with various electron donors and acceptors. Under autotrophic conditions, an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to known microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers within the family Gallionellaceae dominated culture KS. With acetate as an electron donor, most 16S rRNA gene sequences were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Gallionellaceae sp. not only was able to oxidize Fe(II) under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions but also survived over several transfers of the culture on only acetate, although it then lost the ability to oxidize Fe(II). Bradyrhizobium spp. became and remained dominant when culture KS was cultivated for only one transfer under heterotrophic conditions, even when conditions were reverted back to autotrophic in the next transfer. This study showed a dynamic microbial community in culture KS that responded to changing substrate conditions, opening up questions regarding carbon cross-feeding, metabolic flexibility of the individual strains in KS, and the mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation by a microaerophile in the absence of O2IMPORTANCE Nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are present in aquifers, soils, and marine and freshwater sediments. Most nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers known are mixotrophic, meaning that they need organic carbon to continuously oxidize Fe(II) and grow. In these microbes, Fe(II) was suggested to be chemically oxidized by nitrite that forms during heterotrophic denitrification, and it remains unclear whether or to what extent Fe(II) is enzymatically oxidized. In contrast, the enrichment culture KS was shown to oxidize Fe(II) autotrophically coupled to nitrate reduction. This culture contains the designated Fe(II) oxidizer Gallionellaceae sp. and several heterotrophic strains (e.g., Bradyrhizobium sp.). We showed that culture KS is able to metabolize Fe(II) and a variety of organic substrates and is able to adapt to dynamic environmental conditions. When the community composition changed and Bradyrhizobium became the dominant community member, Fe(II) was still oxidized by Gallionellaceae sp., even when culture KS was cultivated with acetate/nitrate [Fe(II) free] before being switched back to Fe(II)/nitrate.
Project description:Nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing (NDFO) bacteria are widespread in the environment contribute to nitrate removal and influence the fate of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. The autotrophic growth of nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria is rarely investigated and poorly understood. The most prominent model system for this type of studies is enrichment culture KS, which originates from a freshwater sediment in Bremen, Germany. A second NDFO culture, culture BP, was obtained with a sample taken in 2015 at the same pond and cultured in a similar way. To gain insights in the metabolism of nitrate reduction coupled to iron(II) oxidation under in the absence of organic carbon and oxygen limited conditions, we performed metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic analyses of culture BP. Raw sequencing data of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (V4 region with Illumina and near full-length with PacBio), shotgun metagenomics, metagenome assembly, raw sequencing data of shotgun metatranscriptomes (2 conditions, triplicates) can be found at SRA in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA693457. This dataset contains proteomics data for 2 conditions in triplicates. Samples R23, R24, and R25 are grown in autotrophic conditions, samples R26, R27, and R28 in heterotrophic conditions.
Project description:The enrichment culture KS is one of the few existing autotrophic, nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing cultures that can be continuously transferred without an organic carbon source. We used a combination of catalyzed amplification reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to analyze community dynamics, single-cell activities, and interactions among the two most abundant microbial community members (i.e., Gallionellaceae sp. and Bradyrhizobium spp.) under autotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions. CARD-FISH cell counts showed the dominance of the Fe(II) oxidizer Gallionellaceae sp. under autotrophic conditions as well as of Bradyrhizobium spp. under heterotrophic conditions. We used NanoSIMS to monitor the fate of 13C-labeled bicarbonate and acetate as well as 15N-labeled ammonium at the single-cell level for both taxa. Under autotrophic conditions, only the Gallionellaceae sp. was actively incorporating 13C-labeled bicarbonate and 15N-labeled ammonium. Interestingly, both Bradyrhizobium spp. and Gallionellaceae sp. became enriched in [13C]acetate and [15N]ammonium under heterotrophic conditions. Our experiments demonstrated that Gallionellaceae sp. was capable of assimilating [13C]acetate while Bradyrhizobium spp. were not able to fix CO2, although a metagenomics survey of culture KS recently revealed that Gallionellaceae sp. lacks genes for acetate uptake and that the Bradyrhizobium sp. carries the genetic potential to fix CO2 The study furthermore extends our understanding of the microbial reactions that interlink the nitrogen and Fe cycles in the environment.IMPORTANCE Microbial mechanisms by which Fe(II) is oxidized with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor are generally referred to as "nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation" (NDFO). NDFO has been demonstrated in laboratory cultures (such as the one studied in this work) and in a variety of marine and freshwater sediments. Recently, the importance of NDFO for the transport of sediment-derived Fe in aquatic ecosystems has been emphasized in a series of studies discussing the impact of NDFO for sedimentary nutrient cycling and redox dynamics in marine and freshwater environments. In this article, we report results from an isotope labeling study performed with the autotrophic, nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS, which was first described by Straub et al. (1) about 20 years ago. Our current study builds on the recently published metagenome of culture KS (2).
Project description:In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to determine whether the iron sulfide mineral- and nitrate-rich freshwater nature reserve Het Zwart Water accommodates anoxic microbial iron cycling. Molecular analyses (16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH) showed that sulfur-oxidizing denitrifiers dominated the microbial population. In addition, bacteria resembling the iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing Acidovorax strain BrG1 accounted for a major part of the microbial community in the groundwater of this ecosystem. Despite the apparent abundance of strain BrG1-like bacteria, iron-oxidizing nitrate reducers could not be isolated, likely due to the strictly autotrophic cultivation conditions adopted in our study. In contrast an iron-reducing Geobacter sp. was isolated from this environment while FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses did not reveal any Geobacter sp.-related sequences in the groundwater. Our findings indicate that iron-oxidizing nitrate reducers may be of importance to the redox cycling of iron in the groundwater of our study site and illustrate the necessity of employing both culture-dependent and independent methods in studies on microbial processes.
2012-01-01 | S-EPMC3271277 | BioStudies
Project description:Diversity of the autotrophic, nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS
Project description:The extreme osmotic conditions prevailing in hypersaline environments result in decreasing metabolic diversity with increasing salinity. Various microbial metabolisms have been shown to occur even at high salinity, including photosynthesis as well as sulfate and nitrate reduction. However, information about anaerobic microbial iron metabolism in hypersaline environments is scarce. We studied the phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and metabolic activity of iron(II)-oxidizing and iron(III)-reducing Bacteria and Archaea in pH-neutral, iron-rich salt lake sediments (Lake Kasin, southern Russia; salinity, 348.6 g liter(-1)) using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bacteria and Archaea revealed a microbial community composition typical for hypersaline sediments. Most-probable-number counts confirmed the presence of 4.26 × 10(2) to 8.32 × 10(3) iron(II)-oxidizing Bacteria and 4.16 × 10(2) to 2.13 × 10(3) iron(III)-reducing microorganisms per gram dry sediment. Microbial iron(III) reduction was detected in the presence of 5 M NaCl, extending the natural habitat boundaries for this important microbial process. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria, total Archaea, and species dominating the iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures (relatives of Halobaculum gomorrense, Desulfosporosinus lacus, and members of the Bacilli) were highest in an iron oxide-rich sediment layer. Combined with the presented geochemical and mineralogical data, our findings suggest the presence of an active microbial iron cycle at salt concentrations close to the solubility limit of NaCl.
Project description:Nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have been known for approximately 20 years. There has been much debate as to what extent the reduction of nitrate and the oxidation of ferrous iron are coupled via enzymatic pathways or via abiotic processes induced by nitrite formed by heterotrophic denitrification. The aim of the present study was to assess the coupling of nitrate reduction and iron(II) oxidation by monitoring changes in substrate concentrations, as well as in the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in natural littoral freshwater sediment, in response to stimulation with nitrate and iron(II). In substrate-amended microcosms, we found that the biotic oxidation of ferrous iron depended on the simultaneous microbial reduction of nitrate. Additionally, the abiotic oxidation of ferrous iron by nitrite in sterilized sediment was not fast enough to explain the iron oxidation rates observed in microbially active sediment. Furthermore, the expression levels of genes coding for enzymes crucial for nitrate reduction were in some setups stimulated by the presence of ferrous iron. These results indicate that there is a direct influence of ferrous iron on bacterial denitrification and support the hypothesis that microbial nitrate reduction is stimulated by biotic iron(II) oxidation.IMPORTANCE The coupling of nitrate reduction and Fe(II) oxidation affects the environment at a local scale, e.g., by changing nutrient or heavy metal mobility in soils due to the formation of Fe(III) minerals, as well as at a global scale, e.g., by the formation of the primary greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Although the coupling of nitrate reduction and Fe(II) oxidation was reported 20 years ago and has been studied intensively since then, the underlying mechanisms still remain unknown. One of the main knowledge gaps is the extent of enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction, which has frequently been questioned in the literature. In the present study, we provide evidence for microbially mediated nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidation in freshwater sediments. This evidence is based on the rates of nitrate reduction and Fe(II) oxidation determined in microcosm incubations and on the effect of iron on the expression of genes required for denitrification.