Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rice (Oryza sativa. L) is more sensitive to drought stress than other cereals, and large genotypic variation in drought tolerance (DT) exists within the cultivated rice gene pool and its wild relatives. Selective introgression of DT donor segments into a drought-sensitive (DS) elite recurrent parent by backcrossing is an effective way to improve drought stress tolerance in rice. To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying DT in rice, deep transcriptome sequencing was used to investigate transcriptome differences among a DT introgression line H471, the DT donor P28, and the drought-sensitive, recurrent parent HHZ under drought stress.<h4>Results</h4>The results revealed constitutively differential gene expression before stress and distinct global transcriptome reprogramming among the three genotypes under a time series of drought stress, consistent with their different genotypes and DT phenotypes. A set of genes with higher basal expression in both H471 and P28 compared with HHZ were functionally enriched in oxidoreductase and lyase activities, implying their positive role in intrinsic DT. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that common up-regulated genes in all three genotypes under mild drought stress were enriched in signaling transduction and transcription regulation. Meanwhile, diverse functional categories were characterized for the commonly drought-induced genes in response to severe drought stress. Further comparative transcriptome analysis between H471 and HHZ under drought stress found that introgression caused wide-range gene expression changes; most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in H471 relative to HHZ under drought were beyond the identified introgressed regions, implying that introgression resulted in novel changes in expression. Co-expression analysis of these DEGs represented a complex regulatory network, including the jasmonic acid and gibberellin pathway, involved in drought stress tolerance in H471.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Comprehensive gene expression profiles revealed that genotype-specific drought induced genes and genes with higher expression in the DT genotype under normal and drought conditions contribute jointly to DT improvement. The molecular genetic pathways of drought stress tolerance uncovered in this study, as well as the DEGs co-localized with DT-related QTLs and introgressed intervals, will serve as useful resources for further functional dissection of the molecular mechanisms of drought stress response in rice.
Project description:To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance (DT) in rice, transcriptome differences of a DT introgression line H471, the DT donor P28 and the drought sensitive recurrent parent HHZ under drought stress were investigated using deep transcriptome sequencing. Results revealed a differential constitutive gene expression prior to stress and distinct global transcriptome reprogramming among three genotypes under time-series drought stress, consistent with their differential genotypes and DT phenotypes. DT introgression line H471, the DT donor P28 and the drought sensitive recurrent parent HHZ under drought stress were investigated using deep transcriptome sequencing.The drought stress treatment was started by withholding water at the tillering stage. The days were counted after the AWC in the soil reached 20% to allow drought measurements at precisely determined intervals, and the soil water content reached 15%, 10% and 7.5% after 1d, 3d and 4d drought treatment, respectively.Three top leaves for each sample were harvested for each genotype under 1d and 3d drought stress and control conditions. All samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80C and then for transcriptome sequencing.
Project description:Differences in drought stress tolerance within diverse rice genotypes have been attributed to genetic diversity and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that influences diverse biological processes, but its effects on rice drought stress tolerance are poorly understood. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and an Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome array were used to profile the DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of the drought-tolerant introgression line DK151 and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent IR64 under drought and control conditions. The introgression of donor genomic DNA induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes in DK151 plants. A total of 1190 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were detected between the two genotypes under normal growth conditions, and the DMR-associated genes in DK151 plants were mainly related to stress response, programmed cell death, and nutrient reservoir activity, which are implicated to constitutive drought stress tolerance. A comparison of the DNA methylation changes in the two genotypes under drought conditions indicated that DK151 plants have a more stable methylome, with only 92 drought-induced DMRs, than IR64 plants with 506 DMRs. Gene ontology analyses of the DMR-associated genes in drought-stressed plants revealed that changes to the DNA methylation status of genotype-specific genes are associated with the epigenetic regulation of drought stress responses. Transcriptome analysis further helped to identify a set of 12 and 23 DMR-associated genes that were differentially expressed in DK151 and IR64, respectively, under drought stress compared with respective controls. Correlation analysis indicated that DNA methylation has various effects on gene expression, implying that it affects gene expression directly or indirectly through diverse regulatory pathways. Our results indicate that drought-induced alterations to DNA methylation may influence an epigenetic mechanism that regulates the expression of unique genes responsible for drought stress tolerance.
Project description:Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Abiotic and biotic stresses induce oxidative processes in plant cells that this process starts with the production of ROSs which cause damage to the proteins. Therefore, plants have increased their antioxidant activity to defend against this oxidative stress to be able to handle stress better. In this research, 14 different tea accessions in a randomized complete block design with two replications were evaluated in two normal and drought stress conditions, and their antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH-free radicals’ assay and gene expression analysis. <h4>Results</h4> The results of gene expression analysis showed that the 100 and 399 accessions and Bazri cultivar had high values for most of the antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase under drought stress conditions while the 278 and 276 accessions had the lowest amount of antioxidant enzymes in the same situation. Results showed that the IC50 of the BHT combination was 90.12 μg/ ml. Also, The IC50 of accessions ranged from 218 to 261 μg/ml and 201–264 μg/ml at normal and drought stress conditions, respectively. The 100 and 399 accessions showed the lowest IC50 under normal and drought stress conditions, while 278 and 276 accessions had the highest value for IC50. The antioxidant activity of tea accession extracts under normal conditions was ranged from 25 to 69% for accessions 278 and 100, respectively. While, the antioxidant activities of extracts under drought stress condition was 12 to 83% for accessions 276 and 100, respectively. So, according to the results, 100 and 399 accessions exhibited the least IC50 and more antioxidant activity under drought stress conditions and were identified as stress-tolerant accessions. However, 278 and 276 accessions did not show much antioxidant activity and were recognized as sensitive accessions under drought stress conditions. <h4>Conclusions</h4> These results demonstrate that total phenol content, antioxidant activity, and the oxygen-scavenging system can be used as a descriptor for identifying drought-tolerant accessions.
Project description:Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. Rice NOXs have multiple homologs but their functional mechanisms are largely unknown. We used microarrays to detail the global gene expression profiles in rice wild-type (WT, Dongjin) and a mutant osnox2 which loss the functions of OsNOX2 protein under drought and identified distinct classes of genes between the two type rice plants under both normal growth and drought stressed conditions. The youngest fully expanded leaves from 2.5-month-old WT and osnox2 plants (three replicates each), grown under normal growth (soil moisture, 47.3%) and drought conditions (soil moisture, 8.5%), were used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Control: normal growth condition; Drought: drought stress condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Drought tolerance is an attribute maintained in plants by cross-talk between multiple and cascading metabolic pathways. Without a sequenced genome available for horse gram, it is difficult to comprehend such complex networks and intercalated genes associated with drought tolerance of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum). Therefore, de novo transcriptome discovery and associated analyses was done for this highly drought tolerant yet under exploited legume to decipher its genetic makeup. RESULTS: Eight samples comprising of shoot and root tissues of two horse gram genotypes (drought-sensitive; M-191 and drought-tolerant; M-249) were used for comparison under control and polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress conditions. Using Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 229,297,896 paired end read pairs were generated and utilized for de novo assembly of horse gram. Significant BLAST hits were obtained for 26,045 transcripts while, 3,558 transcripts had no hits but contained important conserved domains. A total of 21,887 unigenes were identified. SSRs containing sequences covered 16.25% of the transcriptome with predominant tri- and mono-nucleotides (43%). The total GC content of the transcriptome was found to be 43.44%. Under Gene Ontology response to stimulus, DNA binding and catalytic activity was highly expressed during drought stress conditions. Serine/threonine protein kinase was found to dominate in Enzyme Classification while pathways belonging to ribosome metabolism followed by plant pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction were predominant in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Independent search on plant metabolic network pathways suggested valine degradation, gluconeogenesis and purine nucleotide degradation to be highly influenced under drought stress in horse gram. Transcription factors belonging to NAC, MYB-related, and WRKY families were found highly represented under drought stress. qRT-PCR validated the expression profile for 9 out of 10 genes analyzed in response to drought stress. CONCLUSIONS: De novo transcriptome discovery and analysis has generated enormous information over horse gram genomics. The genes and pathways identified suggest efficient regulation leading to active adaptation as a basal defense response against drought stress by horse gram. The knowledge generated can be further utilized for exploring other underexploited plants for stress responsive genes and improving plant tolerance.
Project description:Drought perturbs metabolism in plants and limits their growth. Because drought stress on crops affects their yields, understanding the complex adaptation mechanisms evolved by plants against drought will facilitate the development of drought-tolerant crops for agricultural use. In this study, we examined the metabolic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana which respond to drought stress by omics-based in silico analyses. We proposed an analysis pipeline to understand metabolism under specific conditions based on a genome-scale metabolic model (GEM). Context-specific GEMs under drought and well-watered control conditions were reconstructed using transcriptome data and examined using metabolome data. The metabolic fluxes throughout the metabolic network were estimated by flux balance analysis using the context-specific GEMs. We used in silico methods to identify an important reaction contributing to biomass production and clarified metabolic reaction responses under drought stress by comparative analysis between drought and control conditions. This proposed pipeline can be applied in other studies to understand metabolic changes under specific conditions using Arabidopsis GEM or other available plant GEMs.
Project description:Drought tolerance is a crucial trait for crops to curtail the yield loss inflicted by water stress, yet genetic improvement efforts are challenged by the complexity of this character. The adaptation of sorghum to abiotic stress, its genotypic variability, and relatively small genome make this species well-suited to dissect the molecular basis of drought tolerance. The use of differential transcriptome analysis provides a snapshot of the bioprocesses underlying drought response as well as genes that might be determinants of the drought tolerance trait. RNA sequencing data were analyzed via gene ontology enrichment to compare the transcriptome profiles of two sorghum lines, the drought-tolerant SC56 and the drought-sensitive Tx7000. SC56 outperformed Tx7000 in wet conditions by upregulating processes driving growth and guaranteeing homeostasis. The drought tolerance of SC56 seems to be an intrinsic trait occurring through overexpressing stress tolerance genes in wet conditions, notably genes acting in defense against oxidative stress (SOD1, SOD2, VTC1, MDAR1, MSRB2, and ABC1K1). Similarly to wet conditions, under drought, SC56 enhanced its transmembrane transport and maintained growth-promoting mechanisms. Under drought, SC56 also upregulated stress tolerance genes that heighten the antioxidant capacity (SOD1, RCI3, VTE1, UCP1, FD1, and FD2), regulatory factors (CIPK1 and CRK7), and repressors of premature senescence (SAUL1). The differential expression analysis uncovered biological processes which upregulation enables SC56 to be a better accumulator of biomass and connects the drought tolerance trait to key stress tolerance genes, making this genotype a judicious choice for isolation of tolerance genes.