Project description:A promising keratin-degrading strain from the genus <i>Chryseobacterium</i> (<i>Chryseobacterium</i> sp. KMC2) was investigated using comparative genomic tools against three publicly available reference genomes to reveal the keratinolytic potential for biosynthesis of valuable secondary metabolites. Genomic features and metabolic potential of four species were compared, showing genomic differences but similar functional categories. Eleven different secondary metabolite gene clusters of interest were mined from the four genomes successfully, including five common ones shared across all genomes. Among the common metabolites, we identified gene clusters involved in biosynthesis of flexirubin-type pigment, microviridin, and siderophore, showing remarkable conservation across the four genomes. Unique secondary metabolite gene clusters were also discovered, for example, ladderane from <i>Chryseobacterium</i> sp. KMC2. Additionally, this study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the potential metabolic pathways of keratin utilization in <i>Chryseobacterium</i> sp. KMC2, with the involvement of amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, propanoate metabolism, and sulfate reduction. This work uncovers the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite gene clusters from four keratinolytic <i>Chryseobacterium</i> species and shades lights on the keratinolytic potential of <i>Chryseobacterium</i> sp. KMC2 from a genome-mining perspective, can provide alternatives to valorize keratinous materials into high-value bioactive natural products.
Project description:The taxonomic classification of 182 phenotypically similar isolates was evaluated using DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These bacterial isolates were mainly derived from clinical sources; all were Gram-negative non-fermenters and most were indole-producing. Phenotypically, they resembled species from the genera Chryseobacterium, Elizabethkingia or Empedobacter or belonged to CDC groups IIc, IIe, IIh and IIi. Based on these analyses, four novel species are described: Chryseobacterium bernardetii sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13530(T)?=?CCUG 60564(T)?=?CDC G229(T)), Chryseobacterium carnis sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13525(T)?=?CCUG 60559(T)?=?CDC G81(T)), Chryseobacterium lactis sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 11390(T)?=?CCUG 60566(T)?=?CDC KC1864(T)) and Chryseobacterium nakagawai sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13529(T)?=?CCUG 60563(T)?=?CDC G41(T)). The new combination Chryseobacterium taklimakanense comb. nov. (type strain NCTC 13490(T)?=?X-65(T)?=?CCTCC AB 208154(T)?=?NRRL B-51322(T)) is also proposed to accommodate the reclassified Planobacterium taklimakanense.
Project description:Selenium (Se) is an important trace element that mainly occurs in the form of selenocysteine in selected proteins. In prokaryotes, Se is also required for the synthesis of selenouridine and Se-containing cofactor. A large number of selenoprotein families have been identified in diverse prokaryotic organisms, most of which are thought to be involved in various redox reactions. In the last decade or two, computational prediction of selenoprotein genes and comparative genomics of Se metabolic pathways and selenoproteomes have arisen, providing new insights into the metabolism and function of Se and their evolutionary trends in bacteria and archaea. This review aims to offer an overview of recent advances in bioinformatics analysis of Se utilization in prokaryotes. We describe current computational strategies for the identification of selenoprotein genes and generate the most comprehensive list of prokaryotic selenoproteins reported to date. Furthermore, we highlight the latest research progress in comparative genomics and metagenomics of Se utilization in prokaryotes, which demonstrates the divergent and dynamic evolutionary patterns of different Se metabolic pathways, selenoprotein families, and selenoproteomes in sequenced organisms and environmental samples. Overall, bioinformatics analyses of Se utilization, function, and evolution may contribute to a systematic understanding of how this micronutrient is used in nature.
Project description:A heterotrophic carbon utilizing microbe (R31) capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was isolated from wastewater of an Indian slaughterhouse. From an initial COD value of 583.0?mg/L, 95.54% was removed whilst, from a starting NH4 (+)-N concentration of 55.7?mg/L, 95.87% was removed after 48?h contact. The concentrations of the intermediates hydroxylamine, nitrite, and nitrate were low, thus ensuring nitrogen removal. Aerobic denitrification occurring during ammonium removal by R31 was confirmed by utilization of both nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen substrates. Glucose and succinate were superior while acetate and citrate were poor substrates for nitrogen removal. Molecular phylogenetic identification, supported by chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, assigned R31 as a close relative of Chryseobacterium haifense. The NH4 (+)-N utilization rate and growth of strain R31 were found to be higher at C/N = 10 in comparison to those achieved with C/N ratios of 5 and 20. Monod kinetic coefficients, half saturation concentration (K s ), maximum rate of substrate utilization (k), yield coefficient, (Y) and endogenous decay coefficient (K d ) indicated potential application of R31 in large-scale SND process. This is the first report on concomitant carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification in the genus Chryseobacterium and the associated kinetic coefficients.
Project description:Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, gliding, catalase-positive, and facultative anaerobic strains, YLOS41T and XH07, were isolated from surface water of Yilong Lake and West Lake of Dali in Yunnan Province, respectively. Both strains were yellow-colored under light conditions and white-colored under dark conditions. The results of physiological and chemotaxonomic characterization, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and draft genome sequence comparison demonstrated that the two strains represented a single novel species within the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium lacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YLOS41T (= KCTC 62352T = MCCC 1H00300T), and the second strain is XH07 (= KCTC 62993). During the cultivation process, we found that the colony color of the two strains changed from white to yellow with illumination. The study investigated the effects of light irradiation on the strain YLOS41T. Results showed that light irradiation did not affect the growth of cells but significantly increased carotenoid synthesis, which caused the change of colony color. In-depth metabolic analysis was conducted by transcriptome. The predominant changes were found for genes involved in carotenoid synthesis as protection from light damage. Based on the genome and transcriptome, we proved that strain YLOS41T possessed a complete synthetic pathway of carotenoid and speculated that the production was zeaxanthin. This was the first report of Chryseobacterium species with light-induced carotenoid synthesis. This study enhances our present knowledge on how Chryseobacterium species isolated from surface water responds to light damage.
Project description:The genus Chryseobacterium, belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, contains Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, and non-spore-forming bacterial species, which may be free living or parasitic. Here, we report draft genome sequences of type strains of three species of Chryseobacterium containing genes related to biological control and plant growth promotion.
Project description:The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work, we used phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models to investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. These isolates represent a single OTU and were collected from the rhizosphere and endosphere of Populus deltoides. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased toward endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias toward chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates.
Project description:The genus Chryseobacterium was formally established in 1994 and contains 112 species with validly published names. Most of these species are yellow or orange coloured, and contain a flexirubin-type pigment. The genomes of 83 of these 112 species have been sequenced in view of their importance in clinical microbiology and potential applications in biotechnology. The National Center for Biotechnology Information taxonomy browser lists 1415 strains as members of the genus Chryseobacterium , of which the genomes of 94 strains have been sequenced. In this study, by comparing the 16S rDNA and the deduced proteome sequences, at least 20 of these strains have been proposed to represent novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium . Furthermore, a yellow-coloured bacterium isolated from dry soil in the USA (and identified as Flavobacterium sp. strain B-14859) has also been reconciled as a novel member of the genus Chryseobacterium based on the analysis of 16S rDNA sequences and the presence of flexirubin. Yet another bacterium (isolated from a water sample collected in the Western Ghats of India and identified as Chryseobacterium sp. strain WG4) was also found to represent a novel species. These proposals need to be validated using polyphasic taxonomic approaches.
Project description:N-Acetyltransferase from Chryseobacterium sp. strain 5-3B is an acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the enantioselective transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the amino group of l-2-phenylglycine to produce (2S)-2-acetylamino-2-phenylacetic acid. We purified the enzyme from strain 5-3B and deduced the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The gene, designated natA, was cloned with two other hypothetical protein genes; the three genes probably form a 2.5-kb operon. The deduced amino acid sequence of NatA showed high levels of identity to sequences of putative N-acetyltransferases of Chryseobacterium spp. but not to other known arylamine and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NatA forms a distinct lineage from known N-acetyltransferases. We heterologously expressed recombinant NatA (rNatA) in Escherichia coli and purified it. rNatA showed high activity for l-2-phenylglycine and its chloro- and hydroxyl-derivatives. The Km and Vmax values for l-2-phenylglycine were 0.145 ± 0.026 mM and 43.6 ± 2.39 ?mol · min(-1) · mg protein(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed low activity for 5-aminosalicylic acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which are reported as good substrates of a known arylamine N-acetyltransferase and an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. rNatA had a comparatively broad acyl donor specificity, transferring acyl groups to l-2-phenylglycine and producing the corresponding 2-acetylamino-2-phenylacetic acids (relative activity with acetyl donors acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA, butanoyl-CoA, pentanoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, 100:108:122:10:<1).