Project description:Most Mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin-resistant strains have been associated with mutations in an 81-bp rifampin resistance-determining region (RRDR) in the gene rpoB. However, if this region alone were targeted, rifampin-resistant strains with mutations outside the RRDR would not be detected. In this study, among 51 rifampin-resistant clinical isolates analyzed by sequencing 1,681-bp-long DNA fragments containing the RRDR, 47 isolates contained mutations within the RRDR, three isolates contained mutations both within and outside the RRDR, and only one isolate had a single missense mutation (Arg548His) located outside the RRDR. A drug susceptibility test of recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis isolates carrying mutated rpoB (Arg548His) showed an increased MIC for rifampin compared to that of the control strains. Modeling of the Arg548His mutant RpoB-DNA complex revealed that the His548 side chain formed a more stable hydrogen bond structure than did Arg548, reducing the flexibility of the rifampin-resistant cluster II region of RpoB, suggesting that the RpoB Arg548His mutant does not effectively interact with rifampin and results in bacterial resistance to the drug. This is the first report on the relationship between the mutation in codon 548 of RpoB and rifampin resistance in tuberculosis. The novel mutational profile of the rpoB gene described here will contribute to the comprehensive understanding of rifampin resistance patterns and to the development of a useful tool for simple and rapid drug susceptibility tests.
Project description:Rifampin is a major drug used to treat leprosy and tuberculosis. The rifampin resistance of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from a mutation in the rpoB gene, encoding the ? subunit of RNA polymerase. A method for the molecular determination of rifampin resistance in these two mycobacteria would be clinically valuable, but the relationship between the mutations and susceptibility to rifampin must be clarified before its use. Analyses of mutations responsible for rifampin resistance using clinical isolates present some limitations. Each clinical isolate has its own genetic variations in some loci other than rpoB, which might affect rifampin susceptibility. For this study, we constructed recombinant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis carrying the M. leprae or M. tuberculosis rpoB gene with or without mutation and disrupted their own rpoB genes on the chromosome. The rifampin and rifabutin susceptibilities of the recombinant bacteria were measured to examine the influence of the mutations. The results confirmed that several mutations detected in clinical isolates of these two pathogenic mycobacteria can confer rifampin resistance, but they also suggested that some mutations detected in M. leprae isolates or rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates are not involved in rifampin resistance.
Project description:Low-level rifampin resistance associated with specific rpoB mutations (referred as "disputed") in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is easily missed by some phenotypic methods. To understand the mechanism by which some mutations are systematically missed by MGIT phenotypic testing, we performed an in silico analysis of their effect on the structural interaction between the RpoB protein and rifampin. We also characterized 24 representative clinical isolates by determining MICs on 7H10 agar and testing them by an extended MGIT protocol. We analyzed 2,097 line probe assays, and 156 (7.4%) cases showed a hybridization pattern referred to here as "no wild type + no mutation." Isolates harboring "disputed" mutations (L430P, D435Y, H445C/L/N/S, and L452P) tested susceptible in MGIT, with prevalence ranging from 15 to 57% (overall, 16 out of 55 isolates [29%]). Our in silico analysis did not highlight any difference between "disputed" and "undisputed" substitutions, indicating that all rpoB missense mutations affect the rifampin binding site. MIC testing showed that "undisputed" mutations are associated with higher MIC values (?20 mg/liter) compared to "disputed" mutations (4 to >20 mg/liter). Whereas "undisputed" mutations didn't show any delay (?) in time to positivity of the test tube compared to the control tube on extended MGIT protocol, "disputed" mutations showed a mean ? of 7.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2 to 10.2 days; P < 0.05), providing evidence that mutations conferring low-level resistance are associated with a delay in growth on MGIT. Considering the proved relevance of L430P, D435Y, H445C/L/N, and L452P mutations in determining clinical resistance, genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) should be used to replace phenotypic results (MGIT) when such mutations are found.
Project description:Rifampin is a front-line antibiotic for the treatment of tuberculosis. Infections caused by rifampin- and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are difficult to treat and contribute to a poor clinical outcome. Rifampin resistance most often results from mutations in rpoB. However, some drug-resistant strains have rpoB alleles that encode the phenotype for susceptibility. Similarly, non-M. tuberculosis mycobacteria exhibit higher levels of baseline resistance to rifampin, despite the presence of rpoB alleles that encode the phenotype for susceptibility. To identify other genes involved in rifampin resistance, we generated a library of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 transposon insertion mutants. Upon screening this library, we identified one mutant that was hypersensitive to rifampin. The transposon insertion was localized to the arr gene, which encodes rifampin ADP ribosyltransferase, an enzyme able to inactivate rifampin. Sequence analysis revealed differences in the arr alleles of M. smegmatis strain mc(2)155 and previously described strain DSM 43756. The arr region of strain mc(2)155 contains a second, partial copy of the arr gene plus a novel insertion sequence, IS1623.
Project description:Background:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) rpoB mutations are associated with global metabolic remodeling. However, the net effects of rpoB mutations on Mtb physiology, metabolism and function are not completely understood. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that changes in the expression of cell wall molecules in Mtb mutant RpoB 526D lead to changes in cell wall permeability and to altered resistance to environmental stresses and drugs. Methods: The phenotypes of a fully drug-susceptible clinical strain of Mtb and its paired rifampin-monoresistant, RpoB H526D mutant progeny strain were compared. Results: The rpoB mutant showed altered colony morphology, bacillary length and cell wall thickness, which were associated with increased cell wall permeability and susceptibility to the cell wall detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) after exposure to nutrient starvation. Relative to the isogenic rifampin-susceptible strain, the RpoB H526D mutant showed altered bacterial cellular metabolic activity and an eightfold increase in susceptibility to the cell-wall acting drug vancomycin. Conclusion: Our data suggest that RpoB mutation H526D is associated with altered cell wall physiology and resistance to cell wall-related stress. These findings are expected to contribute to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis infections.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are widespread and present a challenge to effective treatment of this infection. The need for a low-cost and rapid detection method for clinically relevant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that confer multidrug resistance is urgent, particularly for developing countries. We report here a novel test that detects the majority of clinically relevant mutations in the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene that confer resistance to rifampin (RIF), the treatment of choice for tuberculosis (TB). The test, termed TB ID/R, combines a novel target and temperature-dependent RNase H2-mediated cleavage of blocked DNA primers to initiate isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of a rpoB gene target sequence. Amplified products are detected by probes arrayed on a modified silicon chip that permits visible detection of both RIF-sensitive and RIF-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. DNA templates of clinically relevant single-nucleotide mutations in the rpoB gene were created to validate the performance of the TB ID/R test. Except for one rare mutation, all mutations were unambiguously detected. Additionally, 11 RIF-sensitive and 25 RIF-resistant clinical isolates were tested by the TB ID/R test, and 35/36 samples were classified correctly (96.2%). This test is being configured in a low-cost test platform to provide rapid diagnosis and drug susceptibility information for TB in the point-of-care setting in the developing world, where the need is acute.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to two first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid and rifampin, resulting in the relapse of tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis grows very slowly, and thus traditional examination methods take time to test its drug resistance and cannot meet clinical needs. The use of a DNA probe makes it possible to test rifampin resistance. We developed an asymmetrical split-assembly DNA peroxidase assay to detect drug-resistant mutation of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis in the rpoB gene rapidly and visibly. A new strategy was also designed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by the complicated secondary structure of the target DNA and to improve the efficiency of the probes. This detection system consists of five group detections, covers rifampin-resistant determination region of the rpoB gene, and tests 40 kinds of mutations, including the most common mutations at codons 531 and 526. Every group detection or individual mutant allele detection can distinguish corresponding mutant DNA sequences from the wild-type DNA sequences.
Project description:Mutations in an 81-bp region of the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 41 rifampin-resistant clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Turkey. Fourteen different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. A reverse hybridization-based line probe assay (the Inno-LiPA Rif.TB test) for rapid detection of the mutations was evaluated with these isolates. Rifampin resistance was correctly identified in 23 of 41 isolates (56.1%) with the kit's R probes specific for these mutations. Seventeen of 41 isolates (41.5%) yielded hybridization patterns, with at least one negative signal obtained with the S probes for the wild type. One isolate was identified as rifampin sensitive by the line probe assay. The rate of concordance of the results of the line probe assay with the results of the in vitro susceptibility test was high (97.6%). These results demonstrate that the line probe assay kit may be useful for the rapid diagnosis of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To design a rapid test to detect the rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistant mutant based on polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique that analyzes the katG, rpoB genes. METHODS: Biochemical test as well as IS6110 targeting PCR revealed 103 clinical samples were tuberculosis. To determine the susceptibility of isolates to anti TB drugs, the proportional method was used. Mutations presented within the amplified products of the katG, rpoB genes were evaluated by SSCP. RESULTS: Using proportional method, 12 (11.6%) and 9 (8.7%) isolates were resistant respectively to INH and RIF and 9 (8.7%) isolates showed resistance to both drug (multi-drug resistant tuberculosis). Three (2.9%) multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and two INH resistant isolates were detected by the PCR-SSCP and sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR-SSCP for multi-drug resistant isolates were 33% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete agreement between SSCP and sequencing can indicate that resistance-associated mutations have occurred in other genes except our considered genes.
Project description:Rifampin resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis arises primarily through the selection of bacterial variants harboring mutations in the 81-bp rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. While these mutations were shown to infer a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotic pressure, compensatory mutations in rpoA and rpoC were identified which restore the fitness of rifampin-resistant bacteria carrying mutations in rpoB. To investigate the epidemiological relevance of these compensatory mutations, we analyzed 286 drug-resistant and 54 drug-susceptible clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from the Western Cape, South Africa, a high-incidence setting of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Sequencing of a portion of the RpoA-RpoC interaction region of the rpoC gene revealed that 23.5% of all rifampin-resistant isolates tested carried a nonsynonymous mutation in this region. These putative compensatory mutations in rpoC were associated with transmission, as 30.8% of all rifampin-resistant isolates with an IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern belonging to a recognized RFLP cluster harbored putative rpoC mutations. Such mutations were present in only 9.4% of rifampin-resistant isolates with unique RFLP patterns (P < 0.01). Moreover, these putative compensatory mutations were associated with specific strain genotypes and the rpoB S531L rifampin resistance mutation. Among isolates harboring this rpoB mutation, 44.1% also harbored rpoC mutations, while only 4.1% of the isolates with other rpoB mutations exhibited mutations in rpoC (P < 0.001). Our study supports a role for rpoC mutations in the transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and illustrates how epistatic interactions between drug resistance-conferring mutations, compensatory mutations, and different strain genetic backgrounds might influence compensatory evolution in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.