Project description:Cell culture isolates of salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) of farmed Atlantic salmon and sleeping disease virus (SDV) of rainbow trout were compared. Excluding the poly(A) tracts, the genomic nucleotide sequences of SPDV and SDV RNAs include 11,919 and 11,900 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis places SPDV and SDV between the New World viruses of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the Old World viruses of Aura virus and Sindbis virus. When compared to each other, SPDV and SDV show 91.1% nucleotide sequence identity over their complete genomes, with 95 and 93.6% amino acid identities over their nonstructural and structural proteins, respectively. Notable differences between the two viruses include a 24-nucleotide insertion in the C terminus of nsP3 protein of SPDV and amino acid sequence variation at the C termini of the capsid and E1 proteins. Experimental infections of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout with SPDV and SDV confirmed that the disease lesions induced by SPDV and SDV were similar in nature. Although infections with SPDV and SDV produced similar levels of histopathology in rainbow trout, SDV induced significantly less severe lesions in salmon than did SPDV. Virus neutralization tests performed with sera from experimentally infected salmon indicated that SPDV and SDV belonged to the same serotype; however, antigenic variation was detected among SDV and geographically different SPDV isolates by using monoclonal antibodies. Although SPDV and SDV exhibit minor biological differences, we conclude on the basis of the close genetic similarity that SPDV and SDV are closely related isolates of the same virus species for which the name Salmonid alphavirus is proposed.
Project description:Pancreas disease caused by salmonid alphaviruses leads to severe losses in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. The aim of our study was to gain a better understanding of the biological differences between salmon with high and low genomic breeding values (H-gEBV and L-gEBV respectively) for pancreas disease resistance. Fish from H- and L-gEBV families were challenged by intraperitoneal injection of salmonid alphavirus or co-habitation with infected fish. Mortality was higher with co-habitation than injection, and for L- than H-gEBV. Heart for RNA-seq and histopathology was collected before challenge and at four- and ten-weeks post-challenge. Heart damage was less severe in injection-challenged H- than L-gEBV fish at week 4. Viral load was lower in H- than L-gEBV salmon after co-habitant challenge. Gene expression differences between H- and L-gEBV manifested before challenge, peaked at week 4, and moderated by week 10. At week 4, H-gEBV salmon showed lower expression of innate antiviral defence genes, stimulation of B- and T-cell immune function, and weaker stress responses. Retarded resolution of the disease explains the higher expression of immune genes in L-gEBV at week 10. Results suggest earlier mobilization of acquired immunity better protects H-gEBV salmon by accelerating clearance of the virus and resolution of the disease.
Project description:Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated. In the present experiment, the effect of a primary PRV infection on subsequent SAV infection was studied. Atlantic salmon were infected with PRV by cohabitation, followed by addition of SAV shedder fish 4 or 10 weeks after the initial PRV infection. Histopathological evaluation, monitoring of viral RNA levels and host gene expression analysis were used to assess disease development. Significant reduction of SAV RNA levels and of PD specific histopathological changes were observed in the co-infected groups compared to fish infected by SAV only. A strong correlation was found between histopathological development and expression of disease related genes in heart. In conclusion, experimentally PRV infected salmon are less susceptible to secondary SAV infection and development of PD.
Project description:Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD) in farmed Atlantic salmon. A previous study showed that vaccination of pre-smolt salmon with a plasmid encoding the structural polypeptide of SAV gave protection against infection and development of PD accompanied by production of antibodies against the virus. In the present work we analyzed transcript responses in the muscle to vaccination with this plasmid (here named pSAV). The purpose was to shed light on how pSAV might initiate adaptive immune responses in the fish. The work was based on microarray and reverse transcription quantitative PCR analyses of muscle at the injection site 7 days after vaccination. The results showed that pSAV and pcDNA3.3 had similar abilities to up-regulate type I IFN stimulated genes. In contrast, pSAV caused higher up-regulation of IFN? and several IFN? inducible genes. Compared to pcDNA3.3, pSAV also gave larger increase in transcripts of marker genes for B-cells, T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), which suggest attraction and role of these cells in the adaptive immune responses elicited by pSAV. Moreover, pSAV caused a stronger up-regulation of the chemokine CXCL10 and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF?, which may explain attraction of lymphocytes and APCs. The present work shows that the expression profile of genes resulting from vaccination with pSAV is different from the expression profiles obtained previously by vaccination of salmonids with DNA vaccines against infectious salmon anemia virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreas disease (PD) is a contagious disease caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) with significant economic and welfare impacts on salmon farming. Previous work has shown that higher resistance against PD has underlying additive genetic components and can potentially be improved through selective breeding. To better understand the genetic basis of PD resistance in Atlantic salmon, we challenged 4506 smolts from 296 families of the SalmoBreed strain. Fish were challenged through intraperitoneal injection with the most virulent form of the virus found in Norway (i.e., SAV3). Mortalities were recorded, and more than 900 fish were further genotyped on a 55?K SNP array. RESULTS:The estimated heritability for PD resistance was 0.41?±?0.017. The genetic markers on two chromosomes, ssa03 and ssa07, showed significant associations with higher disease resistance. Collectively, markers on these two QTL regions explained about 60% of the additive genetic variance. We also sequenced and compared the cardiac transcriptomics of moribund fish and animals that survived the challenge with a focus on candidate genes within the chromosomal segments harbouring QTL. Approximately 200 genes, within the QTL regions, were found to be differentially expressed. Of particular interest, we identified various components of immunoglobulin-heavy-chain locus B (IGH-B) on ssa03 and immunoglobulin-light-chain on ssa07 with markedly higher levels of transcription in the resistant animals. These genes are closely linked to the most strongly QTL associated SNPs, making them likely candidates for further investigation. CONCLUSIONS:The findings presented here provide supporting evidence that breeding is an efficient tool for increasing PD resistance in Atlantic salmon populations. The estimated heritability is one of the largest reported for any disease resistance in this species, where the majority of the genetic variation is explained by two major QTL. The transcriptomic analysis has revealed the activation of essential components of the innate and the adaptive immune responses following infection with SAV3. Furthermore, the complementation of the genomic with the transcriptomic data has highlighted the possible critical role of the immunoglobulin loci in combating PD virus.
Project description:Salmonid alphavirus is the aetological agent of pancreas disease (PD) in marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with most outbreaks in Norway caused by SAV subtype 3 (SAV3). This atypical alphavirus is transmitted horizontally causing a significant economic impact on the aquaculture industry. This histopathological and proteomic study, using an established cohabitational experimental model, investigated the correlation between tissue damage during PD and a number of serum proteins associated with these pathologies in Atlantic salmon. The proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digest and peptide MS/MS fingerprinting. A number of humoral components of immunity which may act as biomarkers of the disease were also identified. For example, creatine kinase, enolase and malate dehydrogenase serum concentrations were shown to correlate with pathology during PD. In contrast, hemopexin, transferrin, and apolipoprotein, amongst others, altered during later stages of the disease and did not correlate with tissue pathologies. This approach has given new insight into not only PD but also fish disease as a whole, by characterisation of the protein response to infection, through pathological processes to tissue recovery.Salmonid alphavirus causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and has a major economic impact on the aquaculture industry. A proteomic investigation of the change to the serum proteome during PD has been made with an established experimental model of the disease. Serum proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digest and peptide MS/MS fingerprinting with 72 protein spots being shown to alter significantly over the 12week period of the infection. The concentrations of certain proteins in serum such as creatine kinase, enolase and malate dehydrogenase were shown to correlate with tissue pathology while other proteins such as hemopexin, transferrin, and apolipoprotein, altered in concentration during later stages of the disease and did not correlate with tissue pathologies. The protein response to infection may be used to monitor disease progression and enhance understanding of the pathology of PD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. RESULTS: In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates.
Project description:Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water. Copy number analysis of SAV3 RNA in heart tissue showed that there was no difference in viral loads between the diploids and triploids. Prevalence reached 100% by the end of the 35-day experimental period in both infected groups. However, prevalence accumulated more slowly in the triploid group reaching 19% and 56% at 14 and 21 days post exposure (dpe) respectively. Whereas prevalence in the diploid group was 82% and 100% at the same time points indicating some differences between diploid and triploid fish. Both heart and pancreas from infected groups at 14 dpe showed typical histopathological changes associated with pancreas disease. Observation of this slower accumulation of prevalence following a natural infection route was possible due to the early sampling points and the exposure to a relatively low dose of virus. The triploid salmon in this study were not more susceptible to SAV3 than diploid salmon indicating that they could be used commercially to reduce the environmental impact of escaped farmed fish interbreeding with wild salmon. This is important information regarding the future use of triploid fish in large scale aquaculture where SAV3 is a financial threat to increased production.
Project description:Pancreas disease (PD), caused by a salmonid alphavirus (SAV), has a large negative economic and animal welfare impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Evidence for genetic variation in host resistance to this disease has been reported, suggesting that selective breeding may potentially form an important component of disease control. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic architecture of resistance to PD, using survival data collected from two unrelated populations of Atlantic salmon; one challenged with SAV as fry in freshwater (POP 1) and one challenged with SAV as post-smolts in sea water (POP 2). Analyses of the binary survival data revealed a moderate-to-high heritability for host resistance to PD in both populations (fry POP 1?h(2)~0.5; post-smolt POP 2?h(2)~0.4). Subsets of both populations were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and six putative resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. One of these QTL was mapped to the same location on chromosome 3 in both populations, reaching chromosome-wide significance in both the sire- and dam-based analyses in POP 1, and genome-wide significance in a combined analysis in POP 2. This independently verified QTL explains a significant proportion of host genetic variation in resistance to PD in both populations, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for genetic resistance across lifecycle stages. Markers associated with this QTL are being incorporated into selective breeding programs to improve PD resistance.
Project description:Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, characterized by slowly developing anemia and circulatory disturbances. The disease is caused by ISA virus (ISAV) in the Orthomyxoviridae family; hence, it is related to influenza. Here we explore the pathogenesis of ISA by focusing on virus tropism, receptor tissue distribution, and pathological changes in experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Using immunohistochemistry on ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon tissues with antibody to viral nucleoprotein, endotheliotropism was demonstrated. Endothelial cells lining the circulatory system were found to be infected, seemingly noncytolytic, and without vasculitis. No virus could be found in necrotic parenchymal cells. From endothelium, the virus budded apically and adsorbed to red blood cells (RBCs). No infection or replication within RBCs was detected, but hemophagocytosis was observed, possibly contributing to the severe anemia in fish with this disease. Similarly to what has been done in studies of influenza, we examined the pattern of virus attachment by using ISAV as a probe. Here we detected the preferred receptor of ISAV, 4-O-acetylated sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac(2)). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the in situ distribution of this sialic acid derivate. The pattern of virus attachment mirrored closely the distribution of infection, showing that the virus receptor is important for cell tropism, as well as for adsorption to RBCs.