Project description:To better understand the molecular control of leaf senescence, we examined transcriptome changes during seasonal leaf senescence in Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1, the Populus reference genome, growing in its natural habitat. Using monthly (from May to October) transcriptomes for three years (2009, 2015, and 2016), we identified 17,974 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; false discovery rate <0.05; log-fold change cutoff = 0) from 36,007 expressed Populus gene models. A total of 14,415 DEGs were directly related to transitions between four major developmental phases - growth, senescence initiation, reorganization, and senescence termination. These DEGs were significantly (p?<?0.05) enriched in 279 gene ontology (GO) terms, including those related to photosynthesis, metabolic process, catalytic activity, protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, pollination, and transport. Also, there were 881 differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) genes from 54 TF families, notably bHLH, MYB, ERF, MYB-related, NAC, and WRKY. We also examined 28 DEGs known as alternative splicing (AS) factors that regulate AS process, and found evidence for a reduced level of AS activity during leaf senescence. Furthermore, we were able to identify a number of promoter sequence motifs associated with leaf senescence. This work provides a comprehensive resource for identification of genes involved in seasonal leaf senescence in trees, and informs efforts to explore the conservation and divergence of molecular mechanisms underlying leaf senescence between annual and perennial species.
Project description:The DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) genes are ubiquitous in many plant species and are especial transcription regulators that participate in plant growth, development and various procedures, including biotic and abiotic stress reactions. In this study, we identified 41 PtrDof members from Populus trichocarpa genomes and classified them into four groups. The conserved motifs and gene structures of some PtrDof genes belonging to the same subgroup were almost the same. The 41 PtrDof genes were dispersed on 18 of the 19 Populus chromosomes. Many key stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements were discovered in the PtrDof gene promoter regions. Consequently, we undertook expression profiling of the PtrDof genes in leaves and roots in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. A total of seven genes (PtrDof14, 16, 25, 27, 28, 37 and 39) in the Populus Dof gene family were consistently upregulated at point in all time in the leaves and roots under osmotic and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. We observed that 12 PtrDof genes could be targeted by 15 miRNAs. Moreover, we mapped the cleavage site in PtrDof30 using the 5'RLM-RACE. The results showed that PtrDofs may have a role in resistance to abiotic stress in Populus trichocarpa.
Project description:The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) transcription factor family plays an important role in normal plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we identified seven CAMTA genes across the whole genome of Populus trichocarpa and analyzed the expression patterns of PtCAMTAs in the root and leaf tissues. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most CAMTA genes contained stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated indicated that PtCAMTAs were induced by mannitol, NaCl, cold stress, pathogenic infection with A. alternata, and phytohormone treatments with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate. We analyzed the expression of homologous genes between P. trichocarpa and P. ussuriensis and alternative splicing forms of PtCAMTA genes under cold stress. We also performed a network interaction analysis for PtCAMTA proteins to predict their interactions and associations. The results of the present study serve as a basis for future functional studies on the Populus CAMTA family.
Project description:C2H2 zinc-finger (C2H2-ZF) proteins are a large gene family in plants that participate in various aspects of normal plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, no overall analysis incorporating evolutionary history and expression profiling of the C2H2-ZF gene family in model tree species poplar (Populus trichocarpa) has been reported.Here, we identified 109 full-length C2H2-ZF genes in P. trichocarpa, and classified them into four groups, based on phylogenetic analysis. The 109 C2H2-ZF genes were distributed unequally on 19 P. trichocarpa linkage groups (LGs), with 39 segmental duplication events, indicating that segmental duplication has been important in the expansion of the C2H2-ZF gene family. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most of the C2H2-ZF genes contain phytohormone or abiotic stress-related cis-elements. The expression patterns of C2H2-ZF genes, based on heatmap analysis, suggested that C2H2-ZF genes are involved in tissue and organ development, especially root and floral development. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that C2H2-ZF genes are significantly involved in drought, heat and salt response, possibly via different mechanisms.This study provides a thorough overview of the P. trichocarpa C2H2-ZF gene family and presents a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. In particular, some C2H2-ZF genes may be involved in environmental stress tolerance regulation. PtrZFP2, 19 and 95 showed high expression levels in leaves and/or roots under environmental stresses. Additionally, this study provided a solid foundation for studying the biological roles of C2H2-ZF genes in Populus growth and development. These results form the basis for further investigation of the roles of these candidate genes and for future genetic engineering and gene functional studies in Populus.
Project description:Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa were exposed to either ambient air or an acute ozone exposure of 200 ppb for 9 hrs and ozone response was profiled for each genotype by hybridising control against ozone-exposed samples per genotype. Keywords: stress response, genotype comparrison, ozone exposure Overall design: RNA was extracted from the fifth leaf below the first fully unfurled leaf for each plant. Control and ozone-exposed plants were then randomly paired for hybridisation.
Project description:Protein-coding genes are considered to be a dominant component of the eukaryotic transcriptome; however, many studies have shown that intergenic, non-coding transcripts also play an important role. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were found to play a vital role in human and Arabidopsis. However, lincRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in woody plants, especially Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa). A large set of Populus RNA-Seq data were examined with high sequencing depth under control and drought conditions and a total of 2542 lincRNA candidates were identified. In total, 51 lincRNAs and 20 lincRNAs were identified as putative targets and target mimics of known Populus miRNAs, respectively. A total of 504 lincRNAs were found to be drought responsive, eight of which were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These findings provide a comprehensive view of Populus lincRNAs, which will enable in-depth functional analysis.
Project description:The diverse antimicrobial properties of defensins have attracted wide scientific interest in recent years. Also, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including cecropins, histatins, defensins, and cathelicidins, have recently become an antimicrobial research hotspot for their broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities. In addition, defensins play important roles in plant growth, development, and physiological metabolism, and demonstrate tissue specificity and regulation in response to pathogen attack or abiotic stress. In this study, we performed molecular cloning, characterization, expression profiling, and functional analysis of a defensin from Populus trichocarpa. The PtDef protein was highly expressed in the prokaryotic Escherichia coli system as a fusion protein (TrxA-PtDef). The purified protein exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal functions. We then applied PtDef to rooting culture medium as an alternative exogenous additive to cefotaxime. PtDef expression levels increased significantly following both biotic and abiotic treatment. The degree of leaf damage observed in wild-type (WT) and transgenic poplars indicates that transgenic poplars that overexpress the PtDef gene gain enhanced disease resistance to Septotis populiperda. To further study the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signal transduction pathways, SA- and JA-related and pathogenesis-related genes were analyzed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; there were significant differences in these pathways between transgenic and WT poplars. The defensin from Populus trichocarpa showed significant activity of anti-bacteria and anti-fungi. According to the results of qRT-PCR and physiological relevant indicators, the applied PtDef to rooting culture medium was chosen as an alternative exogenous additive to cefotaxime. Overexpressing the PtDef gene in poplar improve the disease resistance to Septotis populiperda.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of 6-7 long oligonucleotide probes developed based on the sequence of the Populus trichocarpa genome, that are optimal for gene expression analysis of P. deltoides and a hybrid of P. deltoides and P. trichocarpa. To evaluate these probes, multiple tissues (differentiating xyle, leaf and whole-root) of a pure P. deltoides and a hybrid (P. deltoides X P. trichocarpa) were transcript profiled for identification of one or more probes that are not biased towards one or the other genotype. Overall design: Three vegetative tissues (root, leaf and xylem) harvested from two biological replicates from each genotypes of Populus deltoides (genotype D124) and a Populus hybrid (P. deltoides X P. trichocarpa, genotype 52-225) were hybridized separately to microarrays in a single-dye experiment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SPLs, a family of transcription factors specific to plants, play vital roles in plant growth and development through regulation of various physiological and biochemical processes. Although Populus trichocarpa is a model forest tree, the PtSPL gene family has not been systematically studied. RESULTS: Here we report the identification of 28 full-length PtSPLs, which distribute on 14 P. trichocarpa chromosomes. Based on the phylogenetic relationships of SPLs in P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis, plant SPLs can be classified into 6 groups. Each group contains at least a PtSPL and an AtSPL. The N-terminal zinc finger 1 (Zn1) of SBP domain in group 6 SPLs has four cysteine residues (CCCC-type), while Zn1 of SPLs in the other groups mainly contains three cysteine and one histidine residues (C2HC-type). Comparative analyses of gene structures, conserved motifs and expression patterns of PtSPLs and AtSPLs revealed the conservation of plant SPLs within a group, whereas among groups, the P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis SPLs were significantly different. Various conserved motifs were identified in PtSPLs but not found in AtSPLs, suggesting the diversity of plant SPLs. A total of 11 pairs of intrachromosome-duplicated PtSPLs were identified, suggesting the importance of gene duplication in SPL gene expansion in P. trichocarpa. In addition, 18 of the 28 PtSPLs, belonging to G1, G2 and G5, were found to be targets of miR156. Consistently, all of the AtSPLs in these groups are regulated by miR156. It suggests the conservation of miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation in plants. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 28 full-length SPLs were identified from the whole genome sequence of P. trichocarpa. Through comprehensive analyses of gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, conserved motifs, expression patterns and miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation, the PtSPL gene family was characterized. Our results provide useful information for evolution and biological function of plant SPLs.
Project description:Leaf morphology varies extensively among plant species and is under strong genetic control. Mutagenic screens in model systems have identified genes and established molecular mechanisms regulating leaf initiation, development, and shape. However, it is not known whether this diversity across plant species is related to naturally occurring variation at these genes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has revealed a polygenic control for leaf shape variation in different species suggesting that loci discovered by mutagenesis may only explain part of the naturally occurring variation in leaf shape. Here we undertook a genetical genomics study in a poplar intersectional pseudo-backcross pedigree to identify genetic factors controlling leaf shape. The approach combined QTL discovery in a genetic linkage map anchored to the Populus trichocarpa reference genome sequence and transcriptome analysis.A major QTL for leaf lamina width and length:width ratio was identified in multiple experiments that confirmed its stability. A transcriptome analysis of expanding leaf tissue contrasted gene expression between individuals with alternative QTL alleles, and identified an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase (PtARF1) as a candidate gene for regulating leaf morphology in this pedigree. ARF GTPases are critical elements in the vesicular trafficking machinery. Disruption of the vesicular trafficking function of ARF by the pharmacological agent Brefeldin A (BFA) altered leaf lateral growth in the narrow-leaf P. trichocarpa suggesting a molecular mechanism of leaf shape determination. Inhibition of the vesicular trafficking processes by BFA interferes with cycling of PIN proteins and causes their accumulation in intercellular compartments abolishing polar localization and disrupting normal auxin flux with potential effects on leaf expansion.In other model systems, ARF proteins have been shown to control the localization of auxin efflux carriers, which function to establish auxin gradients and apical-basal cell polarity in developing plant organs. Our results support a model where PtARF1 transcript abundance changes the dynamics of endocytosis-mediated PIN localization in leaf cells, thus affecting lateral auxin flux and subsequently lamina leaf expansion. This suggests that evolution of differential cellular polarity plays a significant role in leaf morphological variation observed in subgenera of genus Populus.