Project description:BACKGROUND:Plants exhibit wide chemical diversity due to the production of specialized metabolites that function as pollinator attractants, defensive compounds, and signaling molecules. Lamiaceae (mints) are known for their chemodiversity and have been cultivated for use as culinary herbs, as well as sources of insect repellents, health-promoting compounds, and fragrance. FINDINGS:We report the chromosome-scale genome assembly of Callicarpa americana L. (American beautyberry), a species within the early-diverging Callicarpoideae clade of Lamiaceae, known for its metallic purple fruits and use as an insect repellent due to its production of terpenoids. Using long-read sequencing and Hi-C scaffolding, we generated a 506.1-Mb assembly spanning 17 pseudomolecules with N50 contig and N50 scaffold sizes of 7.5 and 29.0 Mb, respectively. In all, 32,164 genes were annotated, including 53 candidate terpene synthases and 47 putative clusters of specialized metabolite biosynthetic pathways. Our analyses revealed 3 putative whole-genome duplication events, which, together with local tandem duplications, contributed to gene family expansion of terpene synthases. Kolavenyl diphosphate is a gateway to many of the bioactive terpenoids in C. americana; experimental validation confirmed that CamTPS2 encodes kolavenyl diphosphate synthase. Syntenic analyses with Tectona grandis L. f. (teak), a member of the Tectonoideae clade of Lamiaceae known for exceptionally strong wood resistant to insects, revealed 963 collinear blocks and 21,297 C. americana syntelogs. CONCLUSIONS:Access to the C. americana genome provides a road map for rapid discovery of genes encoding plant-derived agrichemicals and a key resource for understanding the evolution of chemical diversity in Lamiaceae.
Project description:Although the specific epithet of Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian has been revised for many times, during the study of the genus Callicarpa, we find that Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian is identical to Callicarpa longifolia Lamarck by a series of morphologic characters. In order to avoid more confusion, here Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian is reduced as a synonym of Callicarpa longifolia Lamarck.
Project description:Plants of the genus Callicarpa are known to possess several medicinal effects. The constituents of the Taiwan endemic plant Callicarpa hypoleucophylla have never been studied. Therefore, C. hypoleucophylla was selected for our phytochemical investigation. Two new clerodane-type diterpenoids, named callihypolins A (1) and B (2), along with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves and twigs of the Lamiaceae plant C. hypoleucophylla and then characterized. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, specifically, two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-9 based on the suppression of superoxide anion generation and elastase release was evaluated. Among the isolates, compounds 2-4 showed anti-inflammatory activity (9.52-32.48% inhibition at the concentration 10 ?m) by suppressing superoxide anion generation and elastase release. Our findings not only expand the description of the structural diversity of the compounds present in plants of the genus Callicarpa but also highlight the possibility of developing anti-inflammatory agents from Callicarpa endemic species.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Domatia are plant structures within which organisms reside. Callicarpa saccata (Lamiaceae) is the sole myrmecophyte, or 'ant plant', that develops foliar (leaf-borne) myrmeco-domatia in this genus. In this work we examined domatium development in C. saccata to understand the developmental processes behind pouch-like domatia. METHODS:Scanning electron microscopy, sectioning and microcomputed tomography were carried out to compare the leaves of C. saccata with those of the closely related but domatia-less myrmecophyte Callicarpa subaequalis, both under cultivation without ants. KEY RESULTS:Callicarpa saccata domatia are formed as a result of excess cell proliferation at the blade/petiole junctions of leaf primordia. Blade/petiole junctions are important meristematic sites in simple leaf organogenesis. We also found that the mesophyll tissue of domatia does not clearly differentiate into palisade and spongy layers. CONCLUSIONS:Rather than curling of the leaf margins, a perturbation of the normal functioning of the blade/petiole junction results in the formation of domatium tissue. Excess cell proliferation warps the shape of the blade and disturbs the development of the proximal-distal axis. This process leads to the generation of distinct structures that facilitate interaction between C. saccata and ants.
Project description:Four new triterpenoids which were identifed as 2?,3?,6?,19?-tetrahydroxy- oleanolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3?,19?-di-hydroxyoleanolic acid (2), 2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3?,19?-dihydroxyursolic acid (3), 2?,3?,6?,19?-tetrahydroxyursolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Callicarpa kwangtungensis together with three known triterpenoids identified as 2?,3?,21?-trihydroxyursolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (5), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyoleanolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyursolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were elucidated by the combination of mass spectrometry (MS), one and two-dimensional NMR experiments.
Project description:Sex chromosomes are generally morphologically and functionally distinct, but the evolutionary forces that cause this differentiation are poorly understood. Drosophila americana americana was used in this study to examine one aspect of sex chromosome evolution, the degeneration of nonrecombining Y chromosomes. The primary X chromosome of D. a. americana is fused with a chromosomal element that was ancestrally an autosome, causing this homologous chromosomal pair to segregate with the sex chromosomes. Sequence variation at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Adh) gene was used to determine the pattern of nucleotide variation on the neo-sex chromosomes in natural populations. Sequences of Adh were obtained for neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana, and for Adh of D. a. texana, in which it is autosomal. No significant sequence differentiation is present between the neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana or the autosomes of D. a. texana. There is a significantly lower level of sequence diversity on the neo-Y chromosome relative to the neo-X in D. a. americana. This reduction in variability on the neo-Y does not appear to have resulted from a selective sweep. Coalescent simulations of the evolutionary transition of an autosome into a Y chromosome indicate there may be a low level of recombination between the neo-X and neo-Y alleles of Adh and that the effective population size of this chromosome may have been reduced below the expected value of 25% of the autosomal effective size, possibly because of the effects of background selection or sexual selection.
Project description:A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.