Project description:The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to adopt heterogeneous physiological states, underlies it’s success in evading the immune system and tolerating antibiotic killing. Drug tolerant phenotypes are a major reason why the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate is so high, with over 1.8 million deaths annually. To develop new TB therapeutics that better treat the infection (faster and more completely), a systems-level approach is needed to reveal the complexity of network-based adaptations of Mtb. Here, we report the transcriptional response of Mtb to the drug Bedaquiline. We performed transcriptomic sequencing (RNA-seq) on Mtb bacilli at 4, 24, 72 h following exposure to the drug. Overall design: Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were grown in 7H9 media supplemented with ADC, 0.2% glycerol and 0.05% tyloxapol in a 37 degrees C incubator with shaking until mid log phase. Frozen 1 mL stocks of Mtb cells were added to 7H9-rich media and grown until the culture reached an OD600 of ~0.4-0.8. The cells were then diluted to OD600 of 0.05 and added to 7H9-rich media containing Bedaquiline at the predetermined amounts (0, 5.75, 11.5 μg/mL, as indicated in each sample title). Samples were collected at 4 h, 24 h, and 72 h from three biological replicates. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were aligned with Bowtie2 and processed using the R package DuffyNGS.
Project description:Bacteria commonly adapt to stresses by altering gene expression. To understand the response of M. tuberculosis (MTB) to bedaquiline, we performed transcriptomics over a time-course on MTB bacilli exposed to the drug. Overall design: Bacteria were harvested at 1, 6, 24, 48, 96 hrs after being exposed to concentrations of bedaquiline (no drug, 1.5μM, 15μM) during a 7-day drug exposure time course experiment (as indicated in each sample title). RNA was isolated and applied to custom Agilent tiled arrays. Please note that experiments were performed technically as dual channel (eg, Cy3 and Cy5-labeled samples hybridized to the same array) but processed the results as though they are single channel (Cy3 and Cy5 signals are calculated). Therefore, there are two sample records per each raw data file and the raw data file associated with each sample is indicated in the corresponding sample description field.
Project description:Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in decades. Though BDQ has shown excellent efficacy in clinical trials, its early bactericidal activity during the first week of chemotherapy is minimal. Here, using microfluidic devices and time-lapse microscopy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we confirm the absence of significant bacteriolytic activity during the first 3-4 days of exposure to BDQ. BDQ-induced inhibition of ATP synthesis leads to bacteriostasis within hours after drug addition. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses reveal that M. tuberculosis responds to BDQ by induction of the dormancy regulon and activation of ATP-generating pathways, thereby maintaining bacterial viability during initial drug exposure. BDQ-induced bacterial killing is significantly enhanced when the mycobacteria are grown on non-fermentable energy sources such as lipids (impeding ATP synthesis via glycolysis). Our results show that BDQ exposure triggers a metabolic remodelling in mycobacteria, thereby enabling transient bacterial survival.
Project description:The resilience of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) emerges from its ability to effectively counteract immunological, environmental and antitubercular challenges. Here, we demonstrate that MTB can tolerate drug treatment by adopting a tolerant state that can be deciphered through systems analysis of its transcriptional responses. Specifically, we demonstrate how treatment with the antitubercular drug bedaquiline activates a regulatory network that coordinates multiple resistance mechanisms to push MTB into a tolerant state. Disruption of this network, by knocking out its predicted transcription factors, Rv0324 and Rv0880, significantly increased bedaquiline killing and enabled the discovery of a second drug, pretomanid, that potentiated killing by bedaquiline. We demonstrate that the synergistic effect of this combination emerges, in part, through disruption of the tolerance network. We discuss how this network strategy also predicts drug combinations with antagonistic interactions, potentially accelerating the discovery of new effective combination drug regimens for tuberculosis.
Project description:Sirturo or Bedaquiline has been shown to inhibit the ATP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We used microarrays to investigate compound-induced gene expression changes in general as well as effects on the transcription of the different ATP synthase genes and other metabolic pathways. Log phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis were cultivated in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and treated with 1 µM Bedaquiline. We have extracted RNA from five different time-points after treatment: 0 min (T0), 30 min (T30), 60 min (T60), 180 min (T180) and 360 min (T360).
Project description:The new medicinal compound bedaquiline (BDQ) kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting F1Fo-ATP synthase. BDQ is bacteriostatic for 4 to 7 days and kills relatively slowly compared to other frontline tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Here we show that killing with BDQ can be improved significantly by inhibiting cytochrome bd oxidase, a non-proton-pumping terminal oxidase. BDQ was instantly bactericidal against a cytochrome bd oxidase null mutant of M. tuberculosis, and the rate of killing was increased by more than 50%. We propose that this exclusively bacterial enzyme should be a high-priority target for new drug discovery. Importance: A major drawback of current TB chemotherapy is its long duration. New drug regimens with rapid killing kinetics are desperately needed. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of a nonessential bacterial enzyme greatly improves the efficacy of the latest TB drug bedaquiline and emphasizes that screening for compounds with synergistic killing mechanisms is a promising strategy.
Project description:A comprehensive literature search was conducted to obtain previously published resistance associated mutations for bedaquiline, clofazimine and linezolid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Where possible, mutation frequencies for these three drugs were also identified. This catalog of previously published mutations could serve as a reference for comparing mutations associated with either in vitro or clinical resistant mutants. The usage of these data was seen in our study relating to approaches for resistance mutant creation (in vitro approaches for generation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants resistant to bedaquiline, clofazimine or linezolid and identification of associated genetic variants (Ismail et al., 2018 in press). Previously published mutations for clofazimine were described in the rv0678 and rv1979c genes, for bedaquiline in atpE, rv0678 and rv2535c (pepQ) genes and for linezolid in the rplC and rrl genes.
Project description:The novel ATP synthase inhibitor bedaquiline recently received accelerated approval for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and is currently being studied as a component of novel treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In a limited number of bedaquiline-treated patients reported to date, ?4-fold upward shifts in bedaquiline MIC during treatment have been attributed to non-target-based mutations in Rv0678 that putatively increase bedaquiline efflux through the MmpS5-MmpL5 pump. These mutations also confer low-level clofazimine resistance, presumably by a similar mechanism. Here, we describe a new non-target-based determinant of low-level bedaquiline and clofazimine cross-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: loss-of-function mutations in pepQ (Rv2535c), which corresponds to a putative Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase. pepQ mutants were selected in mice by treatment with clinically relevant doses of bedaquiline, with or without clofazimine, and were shown to have bedaquiline and clofazimine MICs 4 times higher than those for the parental H37Rv strain. Coincubation with efflux inhibitors verapamil and reserpine lowered bedaquiline MICs against both mutant and parent strains to a level below the MIC against H37Rv in the absence of efflux pump inhibitors. However, quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed no significant differences in expression of Rv0678, mmpS5, or mmpL5 between mutant and parent strains. Complementation of a pepQ mutant with the wild-type gene restored susceptibility, indicating that loss of PepQ function is sufficient for reduced susceptibility both in vitro and in mice. Although the mechanism by which mutations in pepQ confer bedaquiline and clofazimine cross-resistance remains unclear, these results may have clinical implications and warrant further evaluation of clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to either drug for mutations in this gene.
Project description:Bedaquiline (BDQ), a diarylquinoline antibiotic that targets ATP synthase, is effective for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections that no longer respond to conventional drugs. While investigating the off-label use of BDQ as salvage therapy, seven of 13 patients with Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease had an initial microbiological response and then relapsed. Whole-genome comparison of pretreatment and relapse isolates of M. intracellulare uncovered mutations in a previously uncharacterized locus, mmpT5 Preliminary analysis suggested similarities between mmpT5 and the mmpR5 locus, which is associated with low-level BDQ resistance in M. tuberculosis Both genes encode transcriptional regulators and are adjacent to orthologs of the mmpS5-mmpL5 drug efflux operon. However, MmpT5 belongs to the TetR superfamily, whereas MmpR5 is a MarR family protein. Targeted sequencing uncovered nonsynonymous mmpT5 mutations in isolates from all seven relapse cases, including two pretreatment isolates. In contrast, only two relapse patient isolates had nonsynonymous changes in ATP synthase subunit c (atpE), the primary target of BDQ. Susceptibility testing indicated that mmpT5 mutations are associated with modest 2- to 8-fold increases in MICs for BDQ and clofazimine, whereas one atpE mutant exhibited a 50-fold increase in MIC for BDQ. Bedaquiline shows potential for the treatment of M. intracellulare lung disease, but optimization of treatment regimens is required to prevent the emergence of mmpT5 variants and microbiological relapse.