Project description:Margaritispora aquatica is an aquatic fungal species found in leaf litter. Here, we report the 42.5-Mb draft genome sequence of M. aquatica strain NNIBRFG339, which comprises 61 scaffolds and has an overall G+C content of 45.77% and an N 50 value of 1.856?Mb.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Coix, Sorghum and Zea are closely related plant genera in the subtribe Maydeae. Coix comprises 9-11 species with different ploidy levels (2n = 10, 20, 30, and 40). The exclusively cultivated C. lacryma-jobi L. (2n = 20) is widely used in East and Southeast Asia for food and medicinal applications. Three fertile cytotypes (2n = 10, 20, and 40) have been reported for C. aquatica Roxb. One sterile cytotype (2n = 30) closely related to C. aquatica has been recently found in Guangxi of China. This putative hybrid has been named C. aquatica HG (Hybrid Guangxi). The genome composition and the evolutionary history of C. lacryma-jobi and C. aquatica HG are largely unclear. RESULTS: About 76% of the genome of C. lacryma-jobi and 73% of the genome of C. aquatica HG are repetitive DNA sequences as shown by low coverage genome sequencing followed by similarity-based cluster analysis. In addition, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposable elements are dominant repetitive sequences in these two genomes, and the proportions of many repetitive sequences in whole genome varied greatly between the two species, indicating evolutionary divergence of them. We also found that a novel 102 bp variant of centromeric satellite repeat CentX and two other satellites only appeared in C. aquatica HG. The results from FISH analysis with repeat probe cocktails and the data from chromosomes pairing in meiosis metaphase showed that C. lacryma-jobi is likely a diploidized paleotetraploid species and C. aquatica HG is possibly a recently formed hybrid. Furthermore, C. lacryma-jobi and C. aquatica HG shared more co-existing repeat families and higher sequence similarity with Sorghum than with Zea. CONCLUSIONS: The composition and abundance of repetitive sequences are divergent between the genomes of C. lacryma-jobi and C. aquatica HG. The results from fine karyotyping analysis and chromosome pairing suggested diploidization of C. lacryma-jobi during evolution and C. aquatica HG is a recently formed hybrid. The genome-wide comparison of repetitive sequences indicated that the repeats in Coix were more similar to those in Sorghum than to those in Zea, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationship reported by previous work.
Project description:A Gram-negative bacterial strain, Comamonas aquatica CJG, absorbs low-density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein in serum. Here, we report its draft genomic sequence of 3,764,434 bp, containing total 3,425 genes, 27% of which encode proteins for metabolism and energy conversion, and it is 30% identical to the genome of Comamonas testosteroni.
Project description:Leifsonia aquatica is an aquatic bacterium that is typically found in environmental water habitats. Infections due to L. aquatica are rare and commonly catheter associated in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of an acute septicemia caused by L. aquatica in a healthy immunocompetent host after cryopexy in the absence of a catheter.
Project description:The phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extracts of Mentha aquatica L., Lavandula dentata L. and Leonurus cardiaca L., obtained from plants grown under organic cultivation, was determined and their hepatoprotective effects were investigated in vitro. L. cardiaca extract was rich in phenylethenoid glycosides, especially lavandolifolioside (254 ± 36 μg/mg), whereas rosmarinic acid and eriodictyol-O-rutinoside were the major phenolic compounds of L. dentata and M. aquatica extracts, accounting for 68 ± 7 μg/mg and 145 ± 22 μg/mg, respectively. These differential phenolic components presumably account for their dissimilar antioxidant properties. While L. cardiaca extract showed moderate biological effects, M. aquatica extract displayed high antioxidant activity in chemical models, and that of L. dentata was effective in counteracting potassium dichromate-induced ROS generation in human hepatocarcinoma cells. Moreover, M. aquatica extract (50 μg/mL) and its mixture (50%/50%) with L. dentata extract displayed an effective cytoprotective effect.
Project description:Plants have a high regeneration capacity and some plant species can regenerate clone plants, called plantlets, from detached vegetative organs. We previously outlined the molecular mechanisms underlying plantlet regeneration from Rorippa aquatica (Brassicaceae) leaf explants. However, the fundamental difference between the plant species that can and cannot regenerate plantlets from vegetative organs remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that the viability of leaf explants is a key factor affecting the regeneration capacity of R. aquatica. To test this hypothesis, the viability of R. aquatica and Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants were compared, with respect to the maintenance of photosynthetic activity, senescence, and immune response. Time-course analyses of photosynthetic activity revealed that R. aquatica leaf explants can survive longer than those of A. thaliana. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were found at low levels in leaf explant of R. aquatica. Time-course transcriptome analysis of R. aquatica and A. thaliana leaf explants suggested that senescence was suppressed at the transcriptional level in R. aquatica. Application of exogenous ABA reduced the efficiency of plantlet regeneration. Overall, our results propose that in nature, plant species that can regenerate in nature can survive for a long time.
Project description:Interactions between herbivorous insects and plants storing terpenoids are poorly understood. This study describes the ability of Chrysolina herbacea to use volatiles emitted by undamaged Mentha aquatica plants as attractants and the plant's response to herbivory, which involves the production of deterrent molecules. Emitted plant volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS. The insect's response to plant volatiles was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Total RNA was extracted from control plants, mechanically damaged leaves, and leaves damaged by herbivores. The terpenoid quantitative gene expressions (qPCR) were then assayed. Upon herbivory, M. aquatica synthesizes and emits (+)-menthofuran, which acts as a deterrent to C. herbacea. Herbivory was found to up-regulate the expression of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The increased emission of (+)-menthofuran was correlated with the upregulation of (+)-menthofuran synthase.
Project description:In this study, we characterized the fatty acid production in Neochloris aquatica at transcriptomics and biochemical levels under limiting, normal, and excess nitrate concentrations in different growth phases. At the stationary phase, N. aquatica mainly produced saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid under the limiting nitrate concentration, which is suitable for biodiesel production. However, it produced polyunsaturated fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid under the excess nitrate concentration, which has nutritional values as food supplements. In addition, RNA-seq was employed to identify genes and pathways that were being affected in N. aquatica for three growth phases in the presence of the different nitrate amounts. Genes that are responsible for the production of saturated fatty acids were upregulated in the cells grown under a limiting nitrogen amount while genes that are responsible for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acid were upregulated in the cells grown under excess nitrogen amount. Further analysis showed more genes differentially expressed (DEGs) at the loga- rithmic phase in all conditions while a relatively steady trend was observed during the transition from the logarithmic phase to the stationary phase under limiting and excess nitrogen. Our results provide a foundation for identifying developmentally important genes and understanding the biological processes in the different growth phases of the N. aquatica in terms of biomass and lipid production. Overall design: We performed de novo transcriptome analysis of Neochloris aquatica cells growth in nitrogen abundance and deficiency with 18 mmol/L nitrogen concentration for control. Deep sequencing technique was utilized via Illumina HiSeq2500 platfrom. Genes that participated in many biosynthesis were significantly changed in the logarithmic phase of the cells at 3 and 27 mmol/L of nitrate.
Project description:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Microsatellite primers were designed for the submersed aquatic plant Cabomba aquatica s.l. (Cabombaceae) and characterized to estimate genetic diversity parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using a selective hybridization method, we designed and tested 30 simple sequence repeat loci using two natural populations of C. aquatica s.l., resulting in 13 amplifiable loci. Twelve loci were polymorphic, and alleles per locus ranged from two to four across the 49 C. aquatica s.l. individuals. Observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and fixation index varied from 0.0 to 1.0, 0.0 to 0.5, and -1.0 to -0.0667, respectively, for the Manaus population and from 0.0 to 1.0, 0.0 to 0.6, and -1.0 to 0.4643 for the Viruá population. CONCLUSIONS:The developed markers will be used in further taxonomic and population studies within Cabomba. This set of microsatellite primers represents the first report on rapid molecular markers in the genus.