Project description:We sequenced the metagenome of a microbial community enriched under strictly anaerobic conditions from wastewater treatment plant-derived digester sludge. The metagenomic analysis of the enrichment revealed that Acetobacterium and methanogenic archaea belonged to the dominant prokaryotes, and genes encoding components of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway were identified.
Project description:The feasibility of using pre-acclimated activated carbon to start up microbial electrolysis cell assisted anaerobic digester (MEC-AD) has been testified in this study. Two identical lab-scale digesters were separately packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powered activated carbon (PAC), which were initially acclimated as anaerobic digester and then transferred to MEC-AD. When a voltage of 0.5?V was applied, increased methane generation and substrate removal rates were observed. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated in both digesters before and after transition, indicating that the pre-cultured microbial community on carbon materials could provide necessary microbiome favorable for starting up MECs. Although a low abundance of <i>Geobacter</i> was detected in inoculum, a rapid propagation could be realized when reactors were subjected to the electro-stimulation. The abundance of <i>Methanosarcina</i> closely attached to PAC was four times than that of GAC, which might be partially contributed to the improved resilience of anaerobic digester subjected to electro-stimulation.
Project description:We sequenced the metagenome of a pilot-scale thermophilic digester with long-term, stable performance on poultry litter feedstock which has a very low C/N ratio, a high ammonia level, and high lignocellulose content. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum (68.9%). Other abundant phyla included Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae This microbiome represents a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community with high diversity.
Project description:The production of biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic/biological wastes has a firm place in sustainable energy production. A simple and cost-effective anaerobic jar at a laboratory scale is a prerequisite to study the microbial community involved in biomass conversion and releasing of methane gas. In this study, a simulation was carried out using a laboratory-modified anaerobic-jar-converted digester (AD1) with that of a commercial/pilot-scale anaerobic digester (AD2). Taxonomic profiling of biogas-producing communities by means of high-throughput methyl coenzyme-M reductase ?-subunit (mcrA) gene amplicon sequencing provided high-resolution insights into bacterial and archaeal structures of AD assemblages and their linkages to fed substrates and process parameters. Commonly, the bacterial phyla Euryarchaeota , Chordata, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria appeared to dominate biogas communities in varying abundances depending on the apparent process conditions. Key micro-organisms identified from AD were Methanocorpusculum labreanum and Methanobacterium formicicum . Specific biogas production was found to be significantly correlating to Methanosarcinaceae . It can be implied from this study that the metagenomic sequencing data was able to dissect the microbial community structure in the digesters. The data gathered indicates that the anaerobic-jar system could throw light on the population dynamics of the methanogens at laboratory scale and its effectiveness at large-scale production of bio-methane. The genome sequence information of non-cultivable biogas community members, metagenome sequencing including assembly and binning strategies will be highly valuable in determining the efficacy of an anaerobic digester.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for sewage sludge stabilization and biogas production. Although the structure and composition of the microbial communities responsible for the process in full-scale anaerobic digesters have been investigated, little is known about the microbial successional dynamics during the start-up phase and the response to variations occurring in such systems under real operating conditions. In this study, bacterial and archaeal population dynamics of a full-scale mesophilic digester treating activated sludge were investigated for the first time from the start-up, performed without adding external inoculum, to steady-state operation. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to describe the microbiome evolution. The large majority of the reads were affiliated to fermentative bacteria. <i>Bacteroidetes</i> increased over time, reaching 22% of the total sequences. Furthermore, <i>Methanosaeta</i> represented the most abundant methanogenic component. The specific quantitative data generated by real-time PCR indicated an enrichment of bacteria and methanogens once the steady state was reached. The analysis allowed evaluation of the microbial components more susceptible to the shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and estimation of the microbial components growing or declining in the system. Additionally, activated sludge was investigated to evaluate the microbial core selected by the WWTP operative conditions.
Project description:The microbial diversity and metabolic potential of a methanogenic consortium residing in a 3785-liter anaerobic digester, fed with wastewater algae, was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing technology. DNA was extracted from anaerobic sludge material and used in metagenomic analysis through PCR amplification of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase ? subunit (mcrA) gene using primer sets ML, MCR, and ME. The majority of annotated mcrA sequences were assigned taxonomically to the genera Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales. Methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta are obligate acetotrophs, suggesting this genus plays a dominant role in methane production from the analyzed fermentation sample. Numerous analyzed sequences within the algae fed anaerobic digester were unclassified and could not be assigned taxonomically. Relative amplicon frequencies were determined for each primer set to determine the utility of each in pyrosequencing. Primer sets ML and MCR performed better quantitatively (representing the large majority of analyzed sequences) than primer set ME. However, each of these primer sets was shown to provide a quantitatively unique community structure, and thus they are of equal importance in mcrA metagenomic analysis.
Project description:The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term time series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure. We examined changes in both the microbiome composition and function of the anaerobic digesters when subjected to the dairy antibiotic monensin. In our digesters, monensin was not rapidly degraded under anaerobic conditions. The two anaerobic digesters that were subjected to manure from monensin feed-dosed cows exhibited relatively small changes in microbiome composition and function due to relatively low monensin concentrations. At higher concentrations of monensin, which we dosed directly to control manure (from dairy cows without monensin), we observed major changes in the microbiome composition and function of two anaerobic digesters. A rapid introduction of monensin to one of these anaerobic digesters led to the impairment of methane production. Conversely, more gradual additions of the same concentrations of monensin to the other anaerobic digester led to the adaptation of the anaerobic digester microbiomes to the relatively high monensin concentrations. A member of the candidate OP11 (Microgenomates) phylum arose in this anaerobic digester and appeared to be redundant with certain Bacteroidetes phylum members, which previously were dominating.IMPORTANCE Monensin is a common antibiotic given to dairy cows in the United States and is partly excreted with dairy manure. An improved understanding of how monensin affects the anaerobic digester microbiome composition and function is important to prevent process failure for farm-based anaerobic digesters. This time series study demonstrates how anaerobic digester microbiomes are inert to low monensin concentrations and can adapt to relatively high monensin concentrations by redundancy in an already existing population. Therefore, our work provides further insight into the importance of microbiome redundancy in maintaining the stability of anaerobic digesters.