Project description:We report here the complete 4.7-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens DSM 18974T, which causes black chaff disease on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome data of this X. translucens type strain will improve our understanding of this bacterial species.
Project description:In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi.
Project description:Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range. Subsequent comparative analysis with previously published genome data of seven non-graminis X. translucens strains including the pathovars arrhenatheri, poae, phlei, cerealis, undulosa, and translucens was conducted to identify candidate genes linked to the host adaptation of Xtg to Italian ryegrass.Phylogenetic analysis revealed a tight clustering of Xtg strains, which were found to share a large core genome. Conserved genomic traits included a non-canonical type III secretion system (T3SS) and a type IV pilus (T4P), which both revealed distinct primary structures of the pilins when compared to the non-graminis X. translucens strains. Xtg-specific traits that had no homologues in the other X. translucens strains were further found to comprise several hypothetical proteins, a TonB-dependent receptor, transporters, and effector proteins as well as toxin-antitoxin systems and DNA methyltransferases. While a nearly complete flagellar gene cluster was identified in one of the sequenced Xtg strains, phenotypic analysis pointed to swimming-deficiency as a common trait of the pathovar graminis.Our study suggests that host adaptation of X. translucens pv. graminis may be conferred by a combination of pathovar-specific effector proteins, regulatory mechanisms, and adapted nutrient acquisition. Sequence deviations of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as observed for the pilins of the T4P and T3SS, are moreover likely to impede perception by the plant defense machinery and thus facilitate successful host colonization of Italian ryegrass.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium <i>Xanthomonas translucens</i> infects a wide range of gramineous plants with a notable impact on small grain cereals. However, genomics-informed intra-species population structure and virulence repertories of the pathogen have rarely been investigated. In this study, the complete genome sequences of seven <i>X. translucens</i> strains representing an entire set of genetic diversity of two pathovars <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>undulosa</i> and <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>translucens</i> is provided and compared with those of seven publicly available complete genomes of the pathogen. Organization of the 25 type III secretion system genes in all the 14 <i>X. translucens</i> strains was exactly the same, while TAL effector genes localized singly or in clusters across four loci in <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>translucens</i> and five to six loci in <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>undulosa</i>. Beside two previously unreported endogenous plasmids in <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>undulosa</i>, and variations in repeat variable diresidue (RVD) of the 14 strains, <i>tal1a</i> of <i>X. translucens</i> pv. <i>translucens</i> strain XtKm8 encode the new RVDs HE and YI which have not previously been reported in xanthomonads. Further, a number of truncated <i>tal</i> genes were predicted among the 14 genomes lacking conserved <i>Bam</i>HI site at N-terminus and <i>Sph</i>I site at C-terminus. Our data have doubled the number of complete genomes of <i>X. translucens</i> clarifying the population structure and genomics of the pathogen to pave the way in the small grain cereals industry for disease resistance breeding in the 21st century's agriculture.
Project description:The species Xanthomonas translucens encompasses a complex of bacterial strains that cause diseases and yield loss on grass species including important cereal crops. Three pathovars, X. translucens pv. undulosa, X. translucens pv. translucens and X. translucens pv.cerealis, have been described as pathogens of wheat, barley, and oats. However, no complete genome sequence for a strain of this complex is currently available.A complete genome sequence of X. translucens pv. undulosa strain XT4699 was obtained by using PacBio long read, single molecule, real time (SMRT) DNA sequences and Illumina sequences. Draft genome sequences of nineteen additional X. translucens strains, which were collected from wheat or barley in different regions and at different times, were generated by Illumina sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships among different Xanthomonas strains indicates that X. translucens are members of a distinct clade from so-called group 2 xanthomonads and three pathovars of this species, undulosa, translucens and cerealis, represent distinct subclades in the group 1 clade. Knockout mutation of type III secretion system of XT4699 eliminated the ability to cause water-soaking symptoms on wheat and barley and resulted in a reduction in populations on wheat in comparison to the wild type strain. Sequence comparison of X. translucens strains revealed the genetic variation on type III effector repertories among different pathovars or within one pathovar. The full genome sequence of XT4699 reveals the presence of eight members of the Transcription-Activator Like (TAL) effector genes, which are phylogenetically distant from previous known TAL effector genes of group 2 xanthomonads. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed TAL effector-specific wheat gene expression modulation.PacBio long read sequencing facilitates the assembly of Xanthomonas genomes and the multiple TAL effector genes, which are difficult to assemble from short read platforms. The complete genome sequence of X. translucens pv. undulosa strain XT4699 and draft genome sequences of nineteen additional X. translucens strains provides a resource for further genetic analyses of pathogenic diversity and host range of the X. translucens species complex. TAL effectors of XT4699 strain play roles in modulating wheat host gene expressions.
Project description:This study aimed at decrypting the transcriptomic response of 2 months-old grown tender wheat (cv Chinese Spring) to a the Xanthomonas translucens pathogen infection by infiltration. The response was monitored by RNAseq 24h post leaf clipping. Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring plants were maintained in a growth chamber with cycles of 12 h of light at 21C and 50% relative humidity (RH) and 12 h of dark at 21C and 50% RH. Leaves of 49 days-old plants were infiltrated with a bacterial suspension in water with an optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 0.5 using a needleless syringe. Plants inoculated with water were used as controls. For transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, leaves and root tissues were harvested 1 day post-inoculation (dpi), when symptoms were not visible yet. Three biological replicates per treatment were performed, and each with pooled leaves from two independent plants per replicate. The files per conditions and replicates are:Sample 1 Root tissue with 3 replicates: CONTROL * control condition for roots (wheat without pathogen infection): 3 replicates: 1.1R,1.2R, 1.3R * control condition for leaves (wheat without pathogen infection): 3 replicates1.1L,1.2L, 1.3L * Wheat Roots infected by Xanthomonas translucens: 3 replicates: 5.1R, 5.2R, 5.3R * Wheat Leaves infected by Xanthomonas translucens: 3 replicates: 5.1L, 5.2L, 5.3L
Project description:This study provides a phylogeographic insight into the population diversity of Xanthomonas translucens strains causing bacterial leaf streak disease of small-grain cereals in Iran. Among the 65 bacterial strains isolated from wheat, barley, and gramineous weeds in eight Iranian provinces, multilocus sequence analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) of four housekeeping genes (dnaK, fyuA, gyrB, and rpoD), identified 57 strains as X. translucens pv. undulosa, while eight strains were identified as X. translucens pv. translucens. Although the pathogenicity patterns on oat and ryegrass weed species varied among the strains, all X. translucens pv. undulosa strains were pathogenic on barley, Harding's grass, rye (except for XtKm35) and wheat, and all X. translucens pv. translucens strains were pathogenic on barley and Harding's grass, while none of the latter group was pathogenic on rye or wheat (except for XtKm18). MLST using the 65 strains isolated in Iran, as well as the sequences of the four genes from 112 strains of worldwide origin retrieved from the GenBank database, revealed higher genetic diversity (i.e., haplotype frequency, haplotype diversity, and percentage of polymorphic sites) among the Iranian population of X. translucens than among the North American strains of the pathogen. High genetic diversity of the BLS pathogen in Iran was in congruence with the fact that the Iranian Plateau is considered the center of origin of cultivated wheat. However, further studies using larger collections of strains are warranted to precisely elucidate the global population diversity and center of origin of the pathogen.IMPORTANCE Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) of small-grain cereals (i.e., wheat and barley) is one of the economically important diseases of gramineous crops worldwide. The disease occurs in many countries across the globe, with particular importance in regions characterized by high levels of precipitation. Two genetically distinct xanthomonads-namely, Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa and X. translucens pv. translucens-have been reported to cause BLS disease on small-grain cereals. As seed-borne pathogens, the causal agents are included in the A2 list of quarantine pathogens by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Despite its global distribution and high economic importance, the population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogeography of X. translucens remain undetermined. This study, using MLSA and MLST, provides a global-scale phylogeography of X. translucens strains infecting small-grain cereals. Based on the diversity parameters, neutrality indices, and population structure, we observe higher genetic diversity of the BLS pathogen in Iran, which is geographically close to the center of origin of common wheat, than has so far been observed in other areas of the world, including North America. The results obtained in this study provide a novel insight into the genetic diversity and population structure of the BLS pathogen of small-grain cereals on a global scale.
Project description:The genus of <i>Xanthomonas</i> contains many well-known plant pathogens with the ability to infect some of the most important crop plants, thereby causing significant economic damage. Unfortunately, classical pest-control strategies are neither particularly efficient nor sustainable and we are, therefore, in demand of alternatives. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of seven novel phages infecting the plant-pathogenic species <i>Xanthomonas translucens</i> and <i>Xanthomonas campestris</i>. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that all phages show a siphovirion morphology. The analysis of genome sequences and plaque morphologies are in agreement with a lytic lifestyle of the phages making them suitable candidates for biocontrol. Moreover, three of the isolated phages form the new genus "<i>Shirevirus</i>". All seven phages belong to four distinct clusters underpinning their phylogenetic diversity. Altogether, this study presents the first characterized isolates for the plant pathogen <i>X. translucens</i> and expands the number of available phages for plant biocontrol.
Project description:The productivity of the Australian dairy industry is underpinned by pasture grasses, and importantly perennial ryegrass. The performance of these pasture grasses is supported by the fungal endophyte Epichloë spp. that has bioprotection activities, however, the broader microbiome is not well characterized. In this study, we characterized a novel bioprotectant Xanthomonas species isolated from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Alto). In vitro and in planta bioassays against key fungal pathogens of grasses (Sclerotium rolfsii, Drechslera brizae and Microdochium nivale) indicated strong bioprotection activities. A complete circular chromosome of ?5.2 Mb was generated for three strains of the novel Xanthomonas sp. Based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, the strains were closely related to the plant pathogen Xanthomonas translucens, however, comparative genomics of 22 closely related xanthomonad strains indicated that these strains were a novel species. The comparative genomics analysis also identified two unique gene clusters associated with the production of bioprotectant secondary metabolites including one associated with a novel nonribosomal peptide synthetase and another with a siderophore. The analysis also identified genes associated with an endophytic lifestyle (e.g., Type VI secretion system), while no genes associated with pathogenicity were identified (e.g., Type III secretion system and effectors). Overall, these results indicate that these strains represent a novel, bioactive, non-pathogenic species of the genus Xanthomonas. Strain GW was the designated type strain of this novel Xanthomonas sp.
Project description:As causal agents of bacterial wilt in pastures and meadows, bacteria of the species Xanthomonas translucens are a serious issue in forage grass production. So far, only little is known about host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level and the lack of comprehensive genome data impeded targeted breeding strategies towards resistant forage grass cultivars. Here we announce the draft genome sequences of three grass-pathogenic Xanthomonas translucens pathotype strains, i.e. pv. arrhenatheri LMG 727, pv. poae LMG 728 and pv. phlei LMG 730 isolated from Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl (Switzerland), Poa trivialis L. (Switzerland) and Phleum pratense L. (Norway), respectively. The genomes of all three strains revealed a non-canonical type III secretion system and a set of 22 type III effectors as common virulence-related traits. Distinct inter-pathovar differences were observed for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster and the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.