Project description:We overproduced human cyclin E from a stably-integrated inducible CCNE1 transgene in RPE1-hTERT cells over a period of weeks. CCNE1 overproduction induced replication stress, then slow proliferation, followed by adaptation to normal growth phenotype. We analyzed mRNA transcripts at key points of the timecourse: control, 2 days, 15-18 days, 39-51 days, and at a point several weeks after induction was withdrawn Overall design: Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE1-hTERT) mRNA profiles of CCNE1 overexpression in adaptation experiment over period of up to 51 days
Project description:A number of studies revealed that CCNE1 copy number amplification and overexpression (on mRNA or protein expression level) were associated with prognosis of diverse cancers, however, the results were inconsistent among studies. So we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic values of CCNE1 amplification and overexpression in cancer patients. PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI and WanFang database (last update by February 15, 2018) were searched for literatures. A total of 20 studies were included and 5 survival assessment parameters were measured in this study, which included overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), recurrence free survival (RFS), cancer specific survival (CSS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS). Pooled analyses showed that CCNE1 amplification might predict poor OS (HR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.05-2.40, p=0.027) rather than PFS (HR=1.49, 95% CI: 0.83-2.67, p=0.177) and RFS (HR=0.982, 95% CI: 0.2376-4.059, p=0.9801) in various cancers; CCNE1 overexpression significantly correlated with poor OS (HR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.20, p=0.027), PFS (HR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.07-1.34, p=0.001) and DMFS (HR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.09-2.40, p=0.017) rather than RFS (HR=1.68, 95% CI: 0.81-3.50, p=0.164) and CSS (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 0.74-3.18, p=0.246). On the whole, these results indicated CCNE1 amplification and overexpression were associated with poor survival of patients with cancer, suggesting that CCNE1 might be an effective prognostic signature for cancer patients.
Project description:CCNE1 amplification is a recurrent alteration associated with unfavourable outcome in tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). We aimed to investigate whether immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be used to identify CCNE1 amplification status and to validate whether CCNE1 high-level amplification and overexpression are prognostic in HGSC. A testing set of 528 HGSC samples stained with two optimised IHC assays (clones EP126 and HE12) was subjected to digital image analysis and visual scoring. DNA and RNA chromogenic in situ hybridisation for CCNE1 were performed. IHC cut-off was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Survival analyses (endpoint ovarian cancer specific survival) were performed and validated in an independent validation set of 764 HGSC. Finally, combined amplification/expression status was evaluated in cases with complete data (n = 1114). CCNE1 high-level amplification was present in 11.2% of patients in the testing set and 10.2% in the combined cohort. The optimal cut-off for IHC to predict CCNE1 high-level amplification was 60% positive tumour cells with at least 5% strong staining cells (sensitivity 81.6%, specificity 77.4%). CCNE1 high-level amplification and overexpression were associated with survival in the testing and validation set. Combined CCNE1 high-level amplification and overexpression was present in 8.3% of patients, mutually exclusive to germline BRCA1/2 mutation and significantly associated with a higher risk of death in multivariate analysis adjusted for age, stage and cohort (hazard ratio = 1.78, 95 CI% 1.38-2.26, p?<?0.0001). CCNE1 high-level amplification combined with overexpression identifies patients with a sufficiently poor prognosis that treatment alternatives are urgently needed. Given that this combination is mutually exclusive to BRCA1/2 germline mutations, a predictive marker for PARP inhibition, CCNE1 high-level amplification combined with overexpression may serve as a negative predictive test for sensitivity to PARP inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The CCNE1 locus, which encodes cyclin E1, is amplified in many types of cancer cells and is activated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from patients infected with hepatitis B virus or adeno-associated virus type 2, due to integration of the virus nearby. We investigated cell-cycle and oncogenic effects of cyclin E1 overexpression in tissues of mice. METHODS:We generated mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of Ccne1 (Ccne1T mice) and activated overexpression of cyclin E1 from age 3 weeks onward. At 14 months of age, livers were collected from mice that overexpress cyclin E1 and nontransgenic mice (controls) and analyzed for tumor burden and by histology. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hepatocytes from Ccne1T and control mice were analyzed to determine the extent to which cyclin E1 overexpression perturbs S-phase entry, DNA replication, and numbers and structures of chromosomes. Tissues from 4-month-old Ccne1T and control mice (at that age were free of tumors) were analyzed for chromosome alterations, to investigate the mechanisms by which cyclin E1 predisposes hepatocytes to transformation. RESULTS:Ccne1T mice developed more hepatocellular adenomas and HCCs than control mice. Tumors developed only in livers of Ccne1T mice, despite high levels of cyclin E1 in other tissues. Ccne1T MEFs had defects that promoted chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, including incomplete replication of DNA, centrosome amplification, and formation of nonperpendicular mitotic spindles. Whereas Ccne1T mice accumulated near-diploid aneuploid cells in multiple tissues and organs, polyploidization was observed only in hepatocytes, with losses and gains of whole chromosomes, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS:Livers, but not other tissues of mice with inducible overexpression of cyclin E1, develop tumors. More hepatocytes from the cyclin E1-overexpressing mice were polyploid than from control mice, and had losses or gains of whole chromosomes, DNA damage, and oxidative stress; all of these have been observed in human HCC cells. The increased risk of HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus or adeno-associated virus type 2 infection might involve activation of cyclin E1 and its effects on chromosomes and genomes of liver cells.
Project description:Clinical options for patients harbouring advanced/recurrent uterine serous carcinoma (USC), an aggressive variant of endometrial tumour, are very limited. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data recently demonstrated that cyclin E1 (CCNE1) gene amplification and pik3ca driver mutations are common in USC and may therefore represent ideal therapeutic targets.Cyclin E1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 95 USCs. The efficacy of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/9 inhibitor CYC065 was assessed on multiple primary USC cell lines with or without CCNE1 amplification. Cell-cycle analyses and knockdown experiments were performed to assess CYC065 targeting specificity. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo activity of CYC065, Taselisib (a PIK3CA inhibitor) and their combinations was tested on USC xenografts derived from CCNE1-amplified/pik3ca-mutated USCs.We found that 89.5% of the USCs expressed CCNE1. CYC065 blocked cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and inhibited cell growth specifically in CCNE1-overexpressing USCs. Cyclin E1 knockdown conferred increased resistance to CYC065, whereas CYC065 treatment of xenografts derived from CCNE1-amplified USCs significantly reduced tumour growth. The combination of CYC065 and Taselisib demonstrated synergistic effect in vitro and was significantly more effective than single-agent treatment in decreasing tumour growth in xenografts of CCNE1-amplified/pik3ca-mutated USCs.Dual CCNE1/PIK3CA blockade may represent a novel therapeutic option for USC patients harbouring recurrent CCNE1-amplified/pi3kca-mutated tumours.
Project description:Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.
Project description:Oncogene-induced replication stress, for instance as a result of Cyclin E1 overexpression, causes genomic instability and has been linked to tumorigenesis. To survive high levels of replication stress, tumors depend on pathways to deal with these DNA lesions, which represent a therapeutically actionable vulnerability. We aimed to uncover the consequences of Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A overexpression on replication kinetics, mitotic progression, and the sensitivity to inhibitors of the WEE1 and ATR replication checkpoint kinases. We modeled oncogene-induced replication stress using inducible expression of Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A in non-transformed RPE-1 cells, either in a TP53 wild-type or TP53-mutant background. DNA fiber analysis showed Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A overexpression to slow replication speed. The resulting replication-derived DNA lesions were transmitted into mitosis causing chromosome segregation defects. Single cell sequencing revealed that replication stress and mitotic defects upon Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A overexpression resulted in genomic instability. ATR or WEE1 inhibition exacerbated the mitotic aberrancies induced by Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A overexpression, and caused cytotoxicity. Both these phenotypes were exacerbated upon p53 inactivation. Conversely, downregulation of Cyclin E1 rescued both replication kinetics, as well as sensitivity to ATR and WEE1 inhibitors. Taken together, Cyclin E1 or Cdc25A-induced replication stress leads to mitotic segregation defects and genomic instability. These mitotic defects are exacerbated by inhibition of ATR or WEE1 and therefore point to mitotic catastrophe as an underlying mechanism. Importantly, our data suggest that Cyclin E1 overexpression can be used to select patients for treatment with replication checkpoint inhibitors.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) are characterized by a high frequency of TP53 mutations, BRCA1/2 inactivation, homologous recombination dysfunction, and widespread copy number changes. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) gene amplification has been reported to occur independently of BRCA1/2 mutation, and it is associated with primary treatment failure and reduced patient survival. Insensitivity of CCNE1-amplified tumors to platinum cross-linking agents may be partly because of an intact BRCA1/2 pathway. Both BRCA1/2 dysfunction and CCNE1 amplification are known to promote genomic instability and tumor progression. These events may be mutually exclusive, because either change provides a path to tumor development, with no selective advantage to having both mutations. Using data from a genome-wide shRNA synthetic lethal screen, we show that BRCA1 and members of the ubiquitin pathway are selectively required in cancers that harbor CCNE1 amplification. Furthermore, we show specific sensitivity of CCNE1-amplified tumor cells to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. These findings provide an explanation for the observed mutual exclusivity of CCNE1 amplification and BRCA1/2 loss in HGSC and suggest a unique therapeutic approach for treatment-resistant CCNE1-amplified tumors.
Project description:Cyclin E1, encoded by the CCNE1 gene, promotes G1/S transition, chromosome instability, and oncogenesis. Here, we show that miR-497 and miR-34a target the 3'-UTR of CCNE1. miR-497 and miR-34a are downregulated in cancer cells and their ectopic expression inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. The effect of simultaneous overexpression of miR-497 and miR-34a on the inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor growth, and the downregulation of cyclin E1 was stronger than the effect of each miRNA alone. The synergistic actions of miR-497 and miR-34a partly correlated with cyclin E1 levels. When cells stably expressing CCNE1 were transfected with the Hi-miR-497/34a plasmid, there was no effect on colony formation, compared with that of cells transfected with either Hi-miR497 or Hi-miR34a. These results indicate cyclin E1 is downregulated by both miR-497 and miR-34a, which synergistically retard the growth of human lung cancer cells.
Project description:Many biological features are conserved and thus considered to be resistant to evolutionary change. While rapid genetic adaptation following the removal of conserved genes has been observed, we often lack a mechanistic understanding of how adaptation happens. We used the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to investigate the evolutionary plasticity of chromosome metabolism, a network of evolutionary conserved modules. We experimentally evolved cells constitutively experiencing DNA replication stress caused by the absence of Ctf4, a protein that coordinates the enzymatic activities at replication forks. Parallel populations adapted to replication stress, over 1000 generations, by acquiring multiple, concerted mutations. These mutations altered conserved features of two chromosome metabolism modules, DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion, and inactivated a third, the DNA damage checkpoint. The selected mutations define a functionally reproducible evolutionary trajectory. We suggest that the evolutionary plasticity of chromosome metabolism has implications for genome evolution in natural populations and cancer.