Project description:Microsatellite instability is present in over 80% of the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma and about 15-20% of the sporadic cancer. Microsatellite instability is caused by the inactivation of the mismatch repair genes, such as primarily hMLH1, hMSH2. To study the mechanisms of the inactivation of mismatch repair genes in colorectal cancers, especially the region-specific methylation of hMLH1 promoter and its correlation with gene expression, we analysed microsatellite instability, expression and methylation of hMLH1 and loss of heterozygosity at hMLH1 locus in these samples. Microsatellite instability was present in 17 of 71 primary tumours of colorectal cancer, including 14 of 39 (36%) mucinous cancer and three of 32 (9%) non-mucinous cancer. Loss of hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression was detected in nine and three of 16 microsatellite instability tumours respectively. Methylation at CpG sites in a proximal region of hMLH1 promoter was detected in seven of nine tumours that showed no hMLH1 expression, while no methylation was present in normal mucosa and tumours which express hMLH1. However, methylation in the distal region was observed in all tissues including normal mucosa and hMLH1 expressing tumours. This observation indicates that methylation of hMLH1 promoter plays an important role in microsatellite instability with a region-specific manner in colorectal cancer. Loss of heterozygosity at hMLH1 locus was present in four of 17 cell lines and 16 of 54 tumours with normal hMLH1 status, while loss of heterozygosity was absent in all nine cell lines and nine tumours with abnormal hMLH1 status (mutation or loss of expression), showing loss of heterozygosity is not frequently involved in the inactivation of hMLH1 gene in sporadic colorectal cancer.
Project description:Most of the colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are sporadic, only 25% of the patients have a family history of the disease, and major genes causing syndromes predisposing to CRC only account for 5-6% of the total cases. The following subtypes can be recognized: MIN (microsatellite instability), CIN (chromosomal instability), and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype). CIN occurs in 80-85% of CRC. Chromosomal instability proceeds through two major mechanisms, missegregation that results in aneuploidy through the gain or loss of whole chromosomes, and unbalanced structural rearrangements that lead to the loss and/or gain of chromosomal regions. The loss of heterozygosity that occur in the first phases of the CRC cancerogenesis (in particular for the genes on 18q) as well as the alteration of methylation pattern of multiple key genes can drive the development of colorectal cancer by facilitating the acquisition of multiple tumor-associated mutations and the instability phenotype.
Project description:Expression of CDX2, a caudal-related homeobox gene, was found to be decreased in colorectal carcinomas. Heterozygous null mutant mice as to Cdx2 develop multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps. To clarify the role of CDX2 in colorectal carcinogenesis, we determined its genomic structure, and searched for mutations of CDX2 in 49 sporadic colorectal carcinomas and ten hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC) without microsatellite instability. None of them exhibited a mutation. We further examined 19 HNPCC carcinomas with microsatellite instability for mutations in a (G)7 repeat site within CDX2. One of them (5.3%) exhibited one G insertion. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in 2 of the 20 (10%) informative sporadic carcinomas, and in one of the three (33.3%) informative HNPCC cancers. These data indicate that CDX2 may play only a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which cause genomic instability, contribute to cancer pathogenesis. However, only few studies have evaluated the association of a single microsatellite locus of the TP53 gene with the mutation spectra of TP53 exons. A total of 256 patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled in the present study. MSI/LOH alterations of a microsatellite in the TP53 intron (TP53ALU) were assessed via short tandem repeat scanning. The exon mutation profile was evaluated by direct sequencing. The mutation rate of TP53 exons was significantly higher in tumors with LOH alterations of TP53 introns compared with those in tumors with a microsatellite-stable status in the TP53 intron (P=0.0047). TNM stage II was significantly more frequent in MSI vs. LOH or MSS of the TP53 intron (P=0.027 and P=0.048, respectively). Thus, microsatellite alterations may be valuable predictors of TP53 exon mutation and the TNM stage of colorectal cancers.
Project description:The current algorithm for Lynch syndrome diagnosis is highly complex with multiple steps which can result in an extended time to diagnosis while depleting precious tumor specimens. Here we describe the analytical validation of a custom probe-based NGS tumor panel, TumorNext-Lynch-MMR, which generates a comprehensive genetic profile of both germline and somatic mutations that can accelerate and streamline the time to diagnosis and preserve specimen. TumorNext-Lynch-MMR can detect single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions in 39 genes that are frequently mutated in Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer. Moreover, the panel provides microsatellite instability status and detects loss of heterozygosity in the five Lynch genes; MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2 and EPCAM. Clinical cases are described that highlight the assays ability to differentiate between somatic and germline mutations, precisely classify variants and resolve discordant cases.
Project description:The pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer involves distinct pathways, with characteristic genomic alterations. The first pathway, chromosome instability (CIN), is driven by APC mutations and is typified by Kras mutations, p53 mutation/loss of heterozygosity, and deletions at chromosome 18q. The second pathway is referred to as microsatellite instability (MSI), a genetic hallmark of the accumulated mutations that occur as a consequence of derangements in the mismatch repair genes. Finally, proximal colon cancers may involve methylation of a number of genes, which is frequently referred to as the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and are associated with B-raf mutations. The ability to stratify colorectal cancers by risk would be facilitated by the identification of polymorphisms that might be utilized as biomarkers. LIN28B is an RNA binding protein that is overexpressed in colon cancers. We find that LIN28B rs314277 is associated with significant recurrence of colorectal cancer in Stage II disease, which may have translational therapeutic implications.
Project description:Immunotherapies have led to substantial changes in cancer treatment and have been a persistently popular topic in cancer research because they tremendously improve the efficacy of treatment and survival of individuals with various cancer types. However, only a small proportion of patients are sensitive to immunotherapy, and specific biomarkers are urgently needed to separate responders from nonresponders. Mismatch repair pathways play a vital role in identifying and repairing mismatched bases during DNA replication and genetic recombination in normal and cancer cells. Defects in DNA mismatch repair proteins and subsequent microsatellite instability-high lead to the accumulation of mutation loads in cancer-related genes and the generation of neoantigens, which stimulate the anti-tumor immune response of the host. Mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high represents a good prognosis in early colorectal cancer settings without adjuvant treatment and a poor prognosis in patients with metastasis. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that mismatch repair deficiency or microsatellite instability-high is significantly associated with long-term immunotherapy-related responses and better prognosis in colorectal and noncolorectal malignancies treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. To date, the anti-programmed cell death-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab has been approved for mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high refractory or metastatic solid tumors, and nivolumab has been approved for colorectal cancer patients with mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high. This is the first time in the history of cancer therapy that the same biomarker has been used to guide immune therapy regardless of tumor type. This review summarizes the features of mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high, its relationship with programmed death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1, and the recent advances in predicting immunotherapy efficacy.
Project description:We investigated the possible role of chromosome 10q losses in colorectal cancer metastasis by carrying out an allelic imbalance study on a series of microsatellite instability-negative (MSI-) primary tumours (n=32) and metastases (n=36) from 49 patients. Our results demonstrate that 10q allelic losses are associated with a significant proportion (25%) of MSI- colorectal tumours, but are not involved in the metastatic process. PTEN and BMPR1A, two genes located in the common deleted region, were screened for mutations in samples with loss of heterozygosity. The absence or low frequency of mutations indicates that the inactivation of these genes by deletion of one allele and mutation of the other one plays only a minor role in MSI- tumours.
Project description:Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a somatic genetic disease in which pathogenesis is influenced by the local colonic environment and the patient's genetic background. Consolidating the knowledge of genetic and epigenetic events that occur with initiation, progression, and metastasis of sporadic CRC has identified some biomarkers that might be utilized to predict behavior and prognosis beyond staging, and inform treatment approaches. Modern next-generation sequencing of sporadic CRCs has confirmed prior identified genetic alterations and has classified new alterations. Each patient's CRC is genetically unique, propelled by 2-8 driver gene alterations that have accumulated within the CRC since initiation. Commonly observed alterations across sporadic CRCs have allowed classification into a (1) hypermutated group that includes defective DNA mismatch repair with microsatellite instability and POLE mutations in ?15%, containing multiple frameshifted genes and BRAF(V600E); (2) nonhypermutated group with multiple somatic copy number alterations and aneuploidy in ?85%, containing oncogenic activation of KRAS and PIK3CA and mutation and loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes, such as APC and TP53; (3) CpG island methylator phenotype CRCs in ?20% that overlap greatly with microsatellite instability CRCs and some nonhypermutated CRCs; and (4) elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats in ?60% that associates with metastatic behavior in both hypermutated and nonhypermutated groups. Components from these classifications are now used as diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment biomarkers. Additional common biomarkers may come from genome-wide association studies and microRNAs among other sources, as well as from the unique alteration profile of an individual CRC to apply a precision medicine approach to care.