Project description:Neutrophils are particularly well known for their antimicrobial function. Although historically they are regarded as strictly a phagocyte of the innate immune system, over time it has become clear that neutrophils are versatile cells with numerous functions including innate and adaptive immune regulation. We have previously described a role for human neutrophils in antibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) clearance. Under homeostatic conditions, neutrophils do not take up RBCs. Yet, when RBCs are immunoglobulin G (IgG) opsonized, which can occur in alloimmunization or autoimmunization reactions, neutrophils can effectively phagocytose RBCs. In the present study, we show that human neutrophils acquire an antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype following RBC phagocytosis. Subsequent to RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils expressed major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules such as CD40 and CD80. Moreover, in classical APCs, the respiratory burst is known to regulate antigen presentation. We found that the respiratory burst in neutrophils is reduced after IgG-mediated RBC phagocytosis. Additionally, following RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils were demonstrated to elicit an antigen-specific T-cell response, using tetanus toxoid (TT) as an antigen to elicit an autologous TT-specific CD4+ T-cell response. Lastly, although the "don't eat me" signal CD47 is known to have a powerful restrictive role in the activation of immunity against RBCs in dendritic cells, CD47 does not seem to have a significant effect on the antigen-presenting function of neutrophils in this context. Overall, these findings reveal that besides their classical antimicrobial role, neutrophils show plasticity in their phenotype.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have indicated increased risk for breast cancer within 10 years of childbirth. Acute inflammation during mammary involution has been suggested to promote this parity-associated breast cancer. We report here that estrogen exacerbates mammary inflammation during involution. Microarray analysis shows that estrogen induces an extensive proinflammatory gene signature in the involuting mammary tissue. This is associated with estrogen-induced neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, estrogen induces the expression of protumoral cytokines/chemokines, COX-2 and tissue-remodeling enzymes in isolated mammary neutrophils and systemic neutrophil depletion abolished estrogen-induced expression of these genes in mammary tissue. More interestingly, neutrophil depletion diminished estrogen-induced growth of ER?-negative mammary tumor 4T1 in Balb/c mice. These findings highlight a novel aspect of estrogen action that reprograms the activity of neutrophils to create a pro-tumoral microenvironment during mammary involution. This effect on the microenvironment would conceivably aggravate its known neoplastic effect on mammary epithelial cells.
Project description:Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential regulator of T-cell responses, and its absence precipitates lethal T-cell hyperactivity. However, whether CTLA-4 acts simply to veto the activation of certain clones or plays a more nuanced role in shaping the quality of T-cell responses is not clear. Here we report that T cells in CTLA-4-deficient mice show spontaneous T-follicular helper (T(FH)) differentiation in vivo, and this is accompanied by the appearance of large germinal centers (GCs). Remarkably, short-term blockade with anti-CTLA-4 antibody in wild-type mice is sufficient to elicit T(FH) generation and GC development. The latter occurs in a CD28-dependent manner, consistent with the known role of CTLA-4 in regulating the CD28 pathway. CTLA-4 can act by down-regulating CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby altering the level of CD28 engagement. To mimic reduced CD28 ligation, we used mice heterozygous for CD28, revealing that the magnitude of CD28 engagement is tightly linked to the propensity for T(FH) differentiation. In contrast, other parameters of T-cell activation, including CD62L down-regulation and Ki67 expression, were relatively insensitive to altered CD28 level. Altered T(FH) generation as a result of graded reduction in CD28 was associated with decreased numbers of GC B cells and a reduction in overall GC size. These data support a model in which CTLA-4 control of immunity goes beyond vetoing T-cell priming and encompasses the regulation of T(FH) differentiation by graded control of CD28 engagement.
Project description:In response to foreign and endogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), protein kinase R (PKR) and ribonuclease L (RNase L) reprogram translation in mammalian cells. PKR inhibits translation initiation through eIF2? phosphorylation, which triggers stress granule (SG) formation and promotes translation of stress responsive mRNAs. The mechanisms of RNase L-driven translation repression, its contribution to SG assembly, and its regulation of dsRNA stress-induced mRNAs are unknown. We demonstrate that RNase L drives translational shut-off in response to dsRNA by promoting widespread turnover of mRNAs. This alters stress granule assembly and reprograms translation by allowing translation of mRNAs resistant to RNase L degradation, including numerous antiviral mRNAs such as interferon (IFN)-?. Individual cells differentially activate dsRNA responses revealing variation that can affect cellular outcomes. This identifies bulk mRNA degradation and the resistance of antiviral mRNAs as the mechanism by which RNase L reprograms translation in response to dsRNA.
Project description:Many logistics companies adopt a manual order picking system. In related research, the effect of emotion and engagement on work efficiency and human errors was verified. However, related research has not established a method to predict emotion and engagement during work with high exercise intensity. Therefore, important variables for predicting the emotion and engagement during work with high exercise intensity are not clear. In this study, to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of emotion and engagement during order picking. Then, we clarify the explanatory variables which are important in predicting the emotion and engagement during work with high exercise intensity. We conducted verification experiments. We compared the accuracy of estimating human emotion and engagement by inputting pulse wave, eye movements, and movements to deep neural networks. We showed that emotion and engagement during order picking can be predicted from the behavior of the worker with an accuracy of error rate of 0.12 or less. Moreover, we have constructed a psychological model based on the questionnaire results and show that the work efficiency of workers is improved by giving them clear targets.
Project description:A greater understanding of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is required for dissecting protective versus detrimental immunity to pathogens that cause chronic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have shown that systemic administration of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or ?-glucan reprograms HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) via a type II interferon (IFN-II) or interleukin-1 (IL1) response, respectively, which confers protective trained immunity against Mtb. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike BCG or ?-glucan, Mtb reprograms HSCs via an IFN-I response that suppresses myelopoiesis and impairs development of protective trained immunity to Mtb. Mechanistically, IFN-I signaling dysregulates iron metabolism, depolarizes mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces cell death specifically in myeloid progenitors. Additionally, activation of the IFN-I/iron axis in HSCs impairs trained immunity to Mtb infection. These results identify an unanticipated immune evasion strategy of Mtb in the BM that controls the magnitude and intrinsic anti-microbial capacity of innate immunity to infection.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR) delays aging and affects the circadian clocks by reprogramming circadian rhythms in gene expression. To expand on the circadian mechanisms in CR, we assayed rhythms in the protein translation by analyzing polysome-associated mRNAs in the liver of mice fed ad libitum (AL) and CR diets. Global comparison of the diets revealed that <1% of transcripts were differentially abundant in the polysomes. In contrast, the large differential, up to 10%, was detected when CR and AL diets were compared at individual times throughout the day. Most transcripts that were rhythmic under AL lost their rhythms, and many new transcripts gained rhythms under CR. Only a small fraction of transcripts, including the circadian clock genes, were rhythmic under both diets. Thus, CR strongly reprograms translation. CR affected translation of enzymes regulating long-chain acetyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) metabolism. The expression of the Acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) family was induced upon CR, leading to the increased transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, the transcriptional factor regulated by the ACOT products. We propose that the differential translation induced by CR leads to a temporal partition and reprogramming of metabolic processes and provides a link between CR, lipid metabolism, and the circadian clock.-Makwana, K., Gosai, N., Poe, A., Kondratov, R. V. Calorie restriction reprograms diurnal rhythms in protein translation to regulate metabolism.
Project description:The impact of research on the world beyond academia has increasingly become an area of focus in research performance assessments internationally. Impact assessment is expected to incentivise researchers to increase engagement with industry, government and the public more broadly. Increased engagement is in turn expected to increase translation of research so decision-makers can use research to inform development of policies, programs, practices, processes, products, and other mechanisms, through which impact can be realised. However, research has shown that various factors affect research use, and evidence on 'what works' to increase decision-makers' use of research is limited. The Conversation is an open access research communication platform, published under Creative Commons licence, which translates research into news articles to engage a general audience, aiming to improve understanding of current issues and complex social problems. To identify factors that predict use of academic research and expertise reported in The Conversation, regression analyses were performed using The Conversation Australia 2016 Annual Survey data. A broad range of factors predicted use, with engagement actions being the most common. Interestingly, different types of engagement actions predicted different types of use. This suggests that to achieve impact through increased engagement, a deeper understanding of how and why different engagement actions elicit different types of use is needed. Findings also indicate The Conversation is overcoming some of the most commonly identified barriers to the use of research: access, relevance, actionable outcomes, and timeliness. As such, The Conversation offers an effective model for providing access to and communicating research in a way that enables use, a necessary precursor to achieving research impact.