Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. PARTICIPANTS: 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ? 14 weeks). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. RESULTS: 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (P<0.001). The monovalent rotavirus vaccine accounted for 92% (n=594) of all rotavirus vaccine doses. With hospital admission as the outcome, the unadjusted effectiveness of two doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was 90% (95% confidence interval 81% to 95%) overall, 91% (75% to 97%) in children aged 3-11 months, and 90% (76% to 96%) in those aged ? 12 months. The G2P genotype accounted for 52% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls. Vaccine effectiveness was 85% (64% to 94%) against G2P and 95% (78% to 99%) against G1P. In 25% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls, there was reported co-infection with adenovirus, astrovirus and/or norovirus. Vaccine effectiveness against co-infected cases was 86% (52% to 96%). Effectiveness of at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (intention to vaccinate analysis) was 91% (82% to 95%). CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccination is effective for the prevention of admission to hospital for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium, despite the high prevalence of G2P and viral co-infection.
Project description:Human rotavirus remains a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide despite the availability of effective vaccines. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of rotaviruses circulating in Lebanon. We genetically characterized the VP4 and VP7 genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of 132 rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis specimens, previously identified in hospitalized children (<5 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Lebanon. These included 43 vaccine-breakthrough specimens and the remainder were from non-vaccinated subjects. Phylogenetic analysis of VP4 and VP7 genes revealed distinct clustering compared to the vaccine strains, and several substitutions were identified in the antigenic epitopes of Lebanese specimens. No unique changes were identified in the breakthrough specimens compared to non-breakthroughs that could explain the occurrence of infection in vaccinated children. Further, we report the emergence of a rare P OP354-like strain with a G9 VP7 in Lebanon, possessing high genetic variability in their VP4 compared to vaccine strains. Therefore, human rotavirus strains circulating in Lebanon and globally have accumulated numerous substitutions in their antigenic sites compared to those currently used in the licensed vaccines. The successful spread and continued genetic drift of these strains over time might undermine the effectiveness of the vaccines. The effect of such changes in the antigenic sites on vaccine efficacy remains to be assessed.
Project description:Quantifying rotavirus shedding among vaccinated individuals will aid understanding of vaccine indirect effects. Serial stool samples were collected from 196 children who presented with rotavirus gastroenteritis to health facilities in Blantyre, Malawi, and were tested for rotavirus using a VP6 semi-quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction. The median duration of fecal shedding was 28 days (95% CI, 19-28). The median copy numbers for peak shedding were 1.99 × 107 (interquartile range, 3.39 × 106 to 6.37 × 107). The fecal viral load was positively associated with disease severity and negatively associated with serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobin A. High and persistent rotavirus shedding among vaccinated children with breakthrough disease may contribute to ongoing transmission in this setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. METHODS: Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, P<0.001). The most common G genotypes were G1 followed by G8, G12, and G4 in cases and G1, G12 and G8 in controls. The Tanzanian G1 variants displayed 94% similarity with the Rotarix vaccine G1 variant. The commonest P genotypes were P, P and P, and the commonest G/P combination G1 P (n = 123), G8 P and G12 P. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P = 0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P = 0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: This pre-vaccination study shows predominance of genotype G1 in Tanzania, which is phylogenetically distantly related to the vaccine strains. We confirm the emergence of genotype G8 and G12. Rotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV.
Project description:Rotavirus infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis among children globally. Sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia is disproportionally affected by the disease. The aims of this review were to determine the pooled prevalence of rotavirus infection among children under-five and to identify the dominant rotavirus genotypes in Ethiopia. Twelve studies were included to estimate the pooled prevalence of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and five studies were used to determine predominantly circulating genotypes of rotavirus. The pooled prevalence of rotavirus infection was 23% (95% CI = 22%-24%). G3 (27.1%) and P (49%) were the dominant G and P types, respectively. The G8 G-type uncommon in humans but highly prevalent in cattle was also reported accounting for 1% of all cases. The major G/P combinations were G12P (15.4%), G3P (14.2%), G1P (13.6%) and G3P (12.9%) collectively accounting for 56.1% of rotavirus strains. Similar to other parts of the world, the dominance of G1, G3, P and P genotypes was noted in Ethiopia. The increased prevalence of G12P strains observed in Ethiopia was similar to observations in other geographic regions in the post-vaccine introduction period. Thus, further studies are required on the vaccine effectiveness, genotype distribution and inter-species transmission potential of rotaviruses in Ethiopia.
Project description:Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and rotavirus vaccine (RV) exhibit poorer performance in low-income settings compared to high-income settings. Prior studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of concurrent non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) infection, but the impact of other enteric infections has not been comprehensively evaluated.In urban Bangladesh, we tested stools for a broad range of enteric viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi by quantitative PCR from infants at weeks 6 and 10 of life, coincident with the first OPV and RV administration respectively, and examined the association between enteropathogen quantity and subsequent OPV serum neutralizing titers, serum rotavirus IgA, and rotavirus diarrhea.Campylobacter and enterovirus (EV) quantity at the time of administration of the first dose of OPV was associated with lower OPV1-2 serum neutralizing titers, while enterovirus quantity was also associated with diminished rotavirus IgA (-0.08 change in log titer per tenfold increase in quantity; P=0.037), failure to seroconvert (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.022), and breakthrough rotavirus diarrhea (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71; P=0.020) after adjusting for potential confounders. These associations were not observed for Sabin strain poliovirus quantity.In this broad survey of enteropathogens and oral vaccine performance we find a particular association between EV carriage, particularly NPEV, and OPV immunogenicity and RV protection. Strategies to reduce EV infections may improve oral vaccine responses. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01375647.
Project description:Intussusception (IS) is a form of acute intestinal obstruction that occurs mainly in infants and is usually of unknown cause. An association between IS and the first licensed rotavirus vaccine, a reassortant-tetravalent, rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV), led to the withdrawal of the vaccine. New rotavirus vaccines have now been developed and extensively studied for their potential association with IS. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and to estimate the incidence of IS in Latin American infants prior to new vaccine introduction.Children under 2 years of age representing potential IS cases were enrolled in 16 centers in 11 Latin American countries from January 2003 to May 2005. IS cases were classified as definite, probable, possible or suspected as stated on the Brighton Collaboration Working Group guidelines.From 517 potential cases identified, 476 (92%) cases were classified as definite, 21 probable, 10 possible and 10 suspected for intussusception. Among the 476 definite IS cases, the median age at presentation was 6.4 months with 89% of cases aged <1 year. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The incidence of definite IS per 100,000 subject-years ranged from 1.9 in Brazil to 62.4 in Argentina for children <2 years of age, and from 3.8 in Brazil to 105.3 in Argentina for children aged <1 year. Median hospital stay was 4 days with a high prevalence of surgery as the primary treatment (65%). Most cases (88%) made a complete recovery, but 13 (3%) died. No clear seasonal pattern of IS cases emerged.This study describes the epidemiology and estimates the incidence of IS in Latin American infants prior to the introduction of new rotavirus vaccines. The incidence of IS was found to vary between different countries, as observed in previous studies.Clinical study identifier 999910/204 (SERO-EPI-IS-204).
Project description:AIM:To determine the distribution of rotavirus VP7 gene in hospitalized children in Yunnan, China. METHODS:A total of 366 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized children in hospitals in Yunnan Province from September 2010 to December 2013. The genomic RNA electropherotypes and the G genotypes of the rotaviruses were determined. A phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene was performed. Rotavirus isolation was performed, and characterized by plaque, minimum essential medium, and all genes sequence analysis. Quantification of antibodies for inactivated vaccine prepared with ZTR-68 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microneutralization assay. RESULTS:Group A human rotavirus was detected in 177 of 366 (48.4%) stool samples using a colloidal gold device assay. The temporal distribution of rotavirus cases showed significant correlation with the mean air temperature. Rotaviruses were isolated from 13% of the rotavirus-positive samples. The predominant genotype was G1 (43.5%), followed by G3 (21.7%), G9 (17.4%), G2 (4.3%), G4 (8.7%), and mixed (4.3%) among a total of 23 rotavirus isolates. A rotavirus strain was isolated from a rotavirus-positive stool sample of a 4-month-old child in The First People's Hospital of Zhaotong (2010) for use as a candidate human inactivated rotavirus vaccine strain and for further research, and was designated ZTR-68. The genotype of 11 gene segments of strain ZTR-68 (RVA/Human-wt/CHN/ZTR-68/2010/G1P) was characterized. The genotype constellation of strain ZTR-68 was identified as G1-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. The VP7 and VP4 genotypes of strain ZTR-68 were similar to Wa-like strains.CONCLUSIONSA high prevalence of the G1, G2, and G3 genotypes was detected from 2010 to 2012. However, a dominant prevalence of the G9 genotype was identified as the cause of gastroenteritis in children in Yunnan, China, in 2013. A candidate human inactivated rotavirus vaccine strain, designated ZTR-68 was isolated, characterized, and showed immunogenicity. Our data will be useful for the future formulation and development of a vaccine in China.
Project description:Rotavirus infections have been reported to account for 40-50% of all hospitalized acute gastroenteritis cases in young children (<5 years) in Japan. Since 2011, Rotarix containing the live attenuated human rotavirus RIX4414 strain (HRV) has been licensed in Japan for infants. Vaccination against rotavirus is optional in Japan whereas administration of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and inactivated poliovirus (DPT-IPV) vaccine is part of the national routine immunization program. In this open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the DPT-IPV vaccine (Squarekids) administered concomitantly or staggered with the liquid HRV (Rotarix) vaccine in healthy Japanese infants. A total of 292 infants aged 6-12 weeks were randomly assigned to receive DPT-IPV vaccine and HRV vaccine co-administered (n = 147) or staggered (n = 145). Immune responses to DPT-IPV vaccine were evaluated by measuring the post-vaccination serum antibody titers/concentrations to each antigen at one month following the third dose of DPT-IPV vaccine. Seroprotection/seropositivity against each of the diphtheria, pertussis (pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin), tetanus, and poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 antigens was 92.8% or higher in both groups. In terms of immunogenicity, DPT-IPV vaccine co-administered with HRV vaccine was shown to be non-inferior to DPT-IPV vaccine with a staggered administration. The safety profile was comparable in the two vaccine groups with no vaccine-related serious adverse events, no deaths and no cases of intussusception. These results support co-administration of HRV vaccine with DPT-IPV vaccine in Japan. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02907216.
Project description:Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains. A total of 1,824 stool samples were collected from children with AGE at six outpatient clinics in 2012-2015. Among all, 372 group A rotavirus (RVA) positive samples were screened for vaccine components by real-time RT-PCR which were designed to differentiate vaccine strains from rotavirus wild-type strains with high specificity. For samples possessing both vaccine and wild-type strains, analyses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) were conducted to characterize viruses existed in the intestine. As a result, Rotarix-derived strains were identified in 6 of 372 (1.6%) RVA positive samples whereas no RotaTeq strain was detected. Among six samples, four possessed Rotarix-derived strains while two possessed both Rotarix-derived strains and wild-type strains. In addition, other pathogens such as norovirus, enterovirus and E.coli were detected in four samples. The contribution of these vaccine strains to each patient's symptoms was unclear as all of the cases were vaccinated 2-14 days before sample collection. Proportion of average coverage for each segmented gene by NGS strongly suggested the concurrent infection of the vaccine-derived strain and the wild-type strain rather than reassortment of these two strains in one sample. This is the first study to report the prevalence of vaccine-derived strains in patients with RVA AGE in Japan as 1.6% without evidence of horizontal transmission. The results emphasized the importance of continuous monitoring on vaccine strains and their clinical impacts on children.